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Update on Nancy
Our Precious Daughter Penny
Penny has been the bravest shining example the Lord could have
chosen and will be a witness to the Glory of God and the
faithfulness of His promises forever.
We give thanks to all who support her with their prayers, may God
pour out His everlasting Love over you forever.
Our Penny Passed Away to be with Our Lord on the 28 Nov 2014.
Barbara & Richard Frost & Family
The Physics of
by Dr. Chuck Missler
Price R 249.00
This is an intensive review of what the Apostle Paul calls the most important chapter in the Bible: 1 Corinthians 15. Without it, “we are of all men most miserable.”
Did Jesus really rise from the dead? How do we know? Do we really believe it?
What kind of body did He have? Why did they have trouble recognizing Him?
How do we now know that we live within a digital virtual environment which is but “a shadow of a larger reality”? What are the implications of that “larger reality”? What is the relationship between “the twinkling of an eye” and Planck’s Constant for time (1043 seconds)?
Do you have your passport for the transit that’s coming? Are you really ready?
Join Dr. Chuck Missler in the Executive Briefing Room of the River Lodge, New Zealand, as he examines the physics of immortality.
This briefing pack contains 2 hours of teachings
Available in the following formats:
•2 MP3 Files
•1 PDF Notes File
Cancer News Headlines -
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People From This Group Breathe the Most Toxic Air in the United States
31 October 2015, 03:15:48 AM Dealing with prejudice and a lack of access to jobs, health care, or high quality schools is tough enough for low-income, non-English-speaking Latino immigrants in the United States. Now new research reveals that they’re also more likely to be regularly exposed to toxic, cancer-causing air pollutants than any other racial or ethnic group—and folks who live in California and the Northeast are the worst off. Raoul Liévanos, an assistant professor of sociology at Washington State University, analyzed data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on cancer risk connected to air pollution, along with U.S. census tract demographic data.
Bacon fans embrace the hog on cancer report, but futures take fright
31 October 2015, 02:15:34 AM "Give me two pounds of bacon," said Roland Marks, 47, a software engineer, rolling his eyes. "I'll take my chances." It is too early for consumer or retail market data to show what any longer term impacts of the report will be in the United States, or whether shoppers will shun the traditional Christmas ham this year, say industry analysts. The WHO took to Twitter, too, and also issued a statement to emphasize that its International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) review "does not ask people to stop eating processed meats," but just indicates that cutting consumption can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer.
Black Sabbath's final tour this January will mark the end, no new LP
30 October 2015, 06:40:33 PM While heavy metal legends Black Sabbath will tour one more time next year, it appears the band has nixed plans to record another LP. Singer Ozzy Osbourne broke the news this week to the New Orleans’ Times-Picayune, saying “it’s the end of Sabbath, believe me.” Rolling Stone confirmed the news, ending speculation that fans would hear one last collection of new Sabbath songs. As recently as last year, Osborne had said that the group would record the follow-up to their 2013 reunion album 13 . 13 was the band’s first record since 1995’s Forbidden — and their first studio recording with Ozzy Osbourne in 35 years. “It’s sort of got the feel of the first three albums — back to the basic rawness,” explained bassist Geezer Butler to 96.7 KCAL Rocks (via Blabbermouth) at the time. “And the lyrics are very… They’re just about life…. Life and death and doom and everything else. You get Prozac with every album.” The critically-acclaimed eight-track record, their 19th, topped the charts in nine countries and even landed the band’s first Grammy, awarded for the Best Metal Performance with their lead single God is Dead? Related : Keith Richards says new Stones record ‘definitely in the works’ for 2016 But, even though Ozzy and the band toyed around with a follow-up, the success of 13 wasn’t enough to convince them to record another. It’s understandable: Osbourne, Butler and guitarist Tony Iommi — who has been battling cancer since 2012 — are now all in their late 60s. “In December, I’ll be f—in’ 68, and I think it’s time to call it the end of the day,” said Osbourne. “I’m not saying I won’t get on stage with Geezer or Tony [Iommi] or any of them some time, but officially we’re going to be done.” Their final tour, which begins January 20th in Omaha, Nebraska is still in the works, though. After a month long leg of U.S. dates, Sabbath will hit Europe in June and July before finishing off with another string of dates stateside in August and September.
Judge orders Louisiana to continue funding Planned Parenthood
30 October 2015, 07:24:50 AM A Louisiana judge issued an order on Thursday blocking attempts to defund Planned Parenthood clinics in the state, finding that more than 5,000 low-income patients would lose access to healthcare including cancer screenings and gynecology exams. U.S. District Judge John deGravelles issued a preliminary injunction that requires Louisiana to continue providing Medicaid funding to the reproductive health organization's clinics. Governor Bobby Jindal, a Republican candidate for president, moved to strip the group's funding this summer after the release of secretly recorded videos about how Planned Parenthood handles the tissue of aborted fetuses.
We’re now killing cancer with herpes
30 October 2015, 04:15:34 AM
We’re still far from eradicating cancer, but researchers are making progress with all sorts of interesting therapies that could put a stop to abnormal cell growth and cure certain types of cancer. One of the newly approved remedies involves infecting the patient’s body with a variation of the herpes virus that won’t cause herpes as we think of it. Instead, it’ll find and attack tumor cells and kill them. DON’T MISS: New leak claims T-Mobile will announce unlimited high-speed streaming for Netflix, HBO and more The Food and Drug Administration on Tuesday approved the new virus-based therapy, Ars Technica reports, which uses the talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) virus, a genetically engineered herpex simplex strain that’s very unfriendly to cancer cells. The
WHO says cancer report not calling for people to give up meat
29 October 2015, 11:19:52 PM The World Health Organization stressed Thursday that an explosive report this week linking the consumption of processed meat to cancer was not calling for people to stop eating meat altogether. The WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) caused shockwaves Monday when it released a report analysing 800 studies from around the world, concluding that processed meats such as sausages, ham, and hot dogs cause bowel cancer, and red meat "probably" does too. Meat producers slammed the report, with Australia's agriculture minister calling it "a farce", and the North American Meat Institute (NAMI) saying IARC "tortured the data to ensure a specific outcome".
WHO says cancer report not a call for people to give up meat
29 October 2015, 11:18:22 PM The World Health Organization stressed Thursday that an explosive report this week linking the consumption of processed meat to cancer was not calling for people to stop eating meat altogether. The WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) caused shockwaves Monday when it released a report analysing 800 studies from around the world, concluding that processed meats such as sausages, ham, and hot dogs cause bowel cancer, and red meat "probably" does too. Meat producers slammed the report, with Australia's agriculture minister calling it "a farce", and the North American Meat Institute (NAMI) saying IARC "tortured the data to ensure a specific outcome".
Former Toronto mayor Rob Ford says cancer has returned
29 October 2015, 10:33:57 PM Rob Ford, the former mayor of Toronto whose political career came to an end last year after being diagnosed with cancer, has a recurrence of the illness, he revealed on Thursday. Ford, who last year ended a re-election bid so that he could undergo chemotherapy, now will have to undergo cancer treatment again, he told reporters. "I was feeling better than I ever have in my life, and now I'm straight back to square one," the former mayor said outside a Toronto hospital.
Glowing terms often used for new cancer drugs in health news
29 October 2015, 09:43:21 PM
By Andrew M. Seaman (Reuters Health) - Health news stories often use overly optimistic terms to describe new cancer drugs, according to a new study. "Each year it seems, you read about a new drug that’s labeled as a 'game changer' or another grandiose word," said senior author Dr. Vinay Prasad, of Oregon Health and Science University in Portland. Searching through Google News, the researchers found 94 stories published over five days that used superlatives like "cure" or "breakthrough" to describe a cancer drug.
Data Visualizations: Racial Gap in Breast Cancer Diagnoses Has Closed
29 October 2015, 08:23:53 PM
A new study by the American Cancer Society reveals that black and white women are now being diagnosed with breast cancer at the same rate. In the past, the incident rate for black women was lower than for white women. The results were published today in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. The following visualizations show breast cancer incidence rates by race, the amount of research funding allocated toward breast cancer research in the U.S., incidence and mortality rates associated with breast cancer and breast cancer incidence rates by state.
FDA approves use of bioengineered Herpes virus as cancer treatment
29 October 2015, 02:15:44 PM On the heels of a favorable recommendation by EU drug reviewers, the US Food and Drug Administration this week approved a novel viral drug therapy for cancer, known chemically as talimogene laherparepvec , or T-Vec. Developed by pharmaceutical company Amgen, T-Vec uses a genetically engineered virus to target and destroy cancer cells. The drug itself not only kills cancer cells, but also stimulates the immune system to aid in the fight. Amgen will market the cancer treatment under the brand name Imlygic. Imlygic is an oncolytic (cancer-killing) drug that uses the cold sore-causing herpes virus as its base. The virus was genetically engineered to attack the rapidly-dividing cancer cells while ignoring the slow-growing healthy cells. Once the drug enters a cell, it takes over the host’s DNA replication system and begins to make copies of itself. These copies multiple quickly, causing the cancer cell to burst. Amgen also removed a gene from the virus that allows it to evade detection by the host. The now very visible virus will stimulate an immune response when it begins attacking cancer cells, causing them to explode. Researchers also added a gene for the production of the GM-CSF protein, which is another immune system stimulant. As a result of this combination, the immune system goes into overdrive, joining the Imlygic in effectively mounting an attack against the cancer causing cells. Related : The first FDA-approved 3D-printed drug dissolves almost instantly in water Unlike chemotherapy treatments that require oral dosages, doctors inject the Imlygic drug directly into the tumor, destroying the cells in a targeted attack. Clinical trials showed that Imlygic was able to shrink a tumor significantly more than control patients who only received the GM-CSF protein therapy. Imlygic shows promise, but it may not be a cure-all — even though it reduced the size of the tumor in trials, patient mortality was not reduced with the drug. Imlygic now is only being used to treat melanoma –a deadly form of skin cancer– and other solid tumor cancers. “T-Vec represents an important milestone in using viruses as the vehicle to stimulate immune response and fight cancer,” said Tim Turnham, executive director of the Melanoma Research Foundation. Amgen will begin offering Imlygic to patients in the coming weeks with an average cost of $65,000. The company also is continuing to study the treatment in combination with other immunotherapies to see if it can improve cancer survival rates.
The Uncertainty of Prognosis in Cancer: You Don't Have an Expiration Date
29 October 2015, 12:00:00 PM
My initial visit with patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer usually follows a predictable pattern. We start with introductions, and then I ask about symptoms and establish a timeline of the disease (called a "history of present illness"). Next is the physical exam, after which we review the test results and then discuss the diagnosis and what to expect. Finally, together, we outline a plan for how to treat the cancer.
Basketball - 'It's been tough' - 'Wolves win after coach's death
29 October 2015, 09:52:19 AM - The Minnesota Timberwolves recorded an emotional season-opening victory Wednesday by toppling Kobe Bryant and the Los Angeles Lakers 112-111, just 72 hours after losing head coach Flip Saunders to cancer. The two NBA league doormats from last year put on an exciting display as the Timberwolves rallied from a nine-point half-time deficit then forced Lakers guard Louis Williams to miss a potential game-winning shot at the buzzer. Timberwolves point guard Ricky Rubio dedicated the thrilling win to Saunders, who died at aged 60 from Hodgkin's lymphoma on Sunday. "It has been tough. ...
Timberwolves honor coach with narrow win over LA Lakers
29 October 2015, 08:59:55 AM The Minnesota Timberwolves recorded an emotional season-opening victory Wednesday by toppling Kobe Bryant and the Los Angeles Lakers 112-111, just 72 hours after losing head coach Flip Saunders to cancer. The two NBA league doormats from last year put on an exciting display as the Timberwolves rallied from a nine-point half-time deficit then forced Lakers guard Louis Williams to miss a potential game-winning shot at the buzzer.
Nintendo delays launch of smartphone videogame, shares plunge
29 October 2015, 05:00:38 AM By Ritsuko Ando TOKYO (Reuters) - Japan's Nintendo Co on Thursday pushed back the much-awaited launch of its videogame service for smartphones by a few months to March 2016, disappointing gaming fans as well as investors who drove its shares down by more than 10 percent. Under a strategy announced by its previous chief executive, who died of cancer earlier this year, Nintendo had said it would introduce its first smartphone games by the end of 2015. Chief Executive Tatsumi Kimishima, a former banker who succeeded Satoru Iwata, said the delay would help Nintendo concentrate on selling its existing consoles and game software during the year-end holiday season.
Study: Mammograms haven't cut rate of advanced breast cancer
29 October 2015, 01:37:51 AM A new report raises fresh questions about the value of mammograms. The rate of cancers that have already spread far beyond the breast when they are discovered has stayed stable for decades, suggesting that screening and early detection are not preventing the most dangerous forms of the disease.
FDA expands use of Bristol Myers' cancer drug Yervoy
29 October 2015, 12:41:46 AM
(Reuters) - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration expanded the use of Bristol-Myers Squibb Co's skin cancer drug, Yervoy, as an additional therapy for patients with late-stage melanoma. This approval extends Yervoy's use to patients with stage III melanoma, who have a high risk of recurrence after surgery, the agency said on Wednesday. Due to the potential for fatal adverse reactions and unusual severe side effects with Yervoy, the drug's label carries a boxed warning - reserved for the most serious of risks.
28 October 2015, 11:10:20 PM
Graphic shows screenings for cancer since 1975.; 2c x 4 inches; 96.3 mm x 101 mm;
Former Toronto mayor famous for smoking crack has new cancer scare
28 October 2015, 10:50:04 PM Doctors for Rob Ford, the former mayor of Toronto who gained global notoriety for admitting to smoking crack while in office, have found a new tumor after cancer treatment forced him out of a re-election race in 2014. Ford, now a city councillor, had abdominal pain and tests have confirmed a tumor is growing on his bladder, Ford's office said in a statement. Ford and his brother Doug Ford, who remain popular figures in Conservative politics in Toronto's suburbs, helped organize a large rally for Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper two weeks ago.
Men Have Breasts and Can Get Breast Cancer
28 October 2015, 07:53:11 PM
The thing is, I'm a man, and men don't have breasts or get breast cancer! "Oh yes," she said, and scheduled me for a sonogram at the local breast cancer center for women. "We found some cancer cells." I was told I would be hearing from a cancer care coordinator to schedule appointments with a surgeon and an oncologist.
Top U.S. drugmakers ride new products to strong results
28 October 2015, 05:40:42 PM (In Oct 27 story, paragraph 9 corrects number of Ibrance patients to 15,000 from 50,000) By Bill Berkrot and Ransdell Pierson NEW YORK (Reuters) - Growing sales of expensive new cancer drugs and other newer medicines propelled top U.S. drugmakers Pfizer Inc , Merck & Co and Bristol-Myers Squibb Co to stronger-than-expected third-quarter profits. The results, announced on Tuesday, demonstrate that the "patent cliff" that had been hurting earnings as huge-selling drugs like Pfizer's Lipitor and Bristol's Plavix went generic is now well behind these companies. Merck's Keytruda and Bristol-Myers' Opdivo, both immunotherapies for advanced melanoma and lung cancer, and Pfizer's Ibrance for breast cancer are off to strong starts, with Wall Street forecasting eventual multibillion-dollar sales.
California considers adding meat to cancer-alert list
28 October 2015, 07:03:32 AM California is examining new World Health Organization findings to determine whether to add red meat and foods like hot dogs, sausages and bacon to a cancer-alert list, setting the stage for a potential battle with the meat industry over warning labels. The inclusion of meat and processed meat on the list could reduce consumer demand, hurting major producers and processors like Hormel Foods Corp and JBS USA.
Constipation drug extends survival for cancer patients
28 October 2015, 02:56:12 AM A drug that is given to late-stage cancer patients to help ease the constipation brought on by morphine has been shown to extend their lives, researchers said. Methylnaltrexone, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2008 to treat opioid-induced constipation, could play a role in cancer therapy, said researchers who presented their findings at the meeting of the American Society of Anesthesiologists in San Diego. "Early on, we began to suspect that methylnaltrexone might inhibit cancer growth," said Jonathan Moss, lead author of the study and professor of anesthesia and critical care at the University of Chicago.
Leading Causes of Death in the US: What's Changed Since 1969?
28 October 2015, 02:53:03 AM
Five of the six top causes of death in America — including stroke, cancer and diabetes — now have lower death rates than they have in past years, according to a new report. To investigate the deadliest conditions in the United States, researchers pulled national mortality data from death certificates, looking at the period from 1969 to 2013. Deaths from stroke had the most substantial decrease, falling 77 percent (from 156 deaths per 100,000 people to 36 deaths per 100,000 people) during the study period, and heart disease was close behind, down by about two-thirds (from 520 deaths per 100,000 people to 169 deaths per 100,000 people), the researchers found.
Canada court orders tobacco companies to set aside almost C$1 billion
28 October 2015, 02:46:48 AM By Alastair Sharp TORONTO (Reuters) - A Canadian appeal court on Tuesday ordered two major tobacco companies to set aside a combined C$984 million ($742 million) while they challenge billions of dollars in damages awarded to smokers in the province of Quebec. The more than C$15 billion in damages awarded in June, if upheld in an appeal of two class-action lawsuits, would compensate some 100,000 Quebec smokers and ex-smokers who allege the companies knew since the 1950s that their product was causing cancer and other illnesses and failed to warn consumers adequately. Imperial Tobacco Canada Ltd - a subsidiary of British American Tobacco Plc - must put aside C$758 million, and Rothmans, Benson & Hedges Inc - a subsidiary of Philip Morris International - must deposit C$226 million, the Quebec Court of Appeal said.
Sales of new medicines boost 3Q results for US drugmakers
28 October 2015, 12:46:22 AM
Growing revenue for promising new medicines for cancer, heart disease and other serious conditions helped U.S. drugmakers improve results after several disappointing quarters and beat Wall Street expectations.
Bolivia's answer to health scare on meat: eat llama
27 October 2015, 11:03:25 PM La Paz (AFP) - Bolivia's health ministry announced a novel idea Tuesday to cheer up carnivores worried by a UN agency's warning that red meat "probably" causes cancer: switch to llamas.
FDA approves Amgen's injected immunotherapy for melanoma
27 October 2015, 11:01:15 PM
(Reuters) - Amgen Inc said on Tuesday that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved its cancer immunotherapy, Imlygic, for use in patients with the most deadly type of skin cancer. Imlygic, which is the first-of-its-kind to win approval in the United States, is an engineered version of a herpes virus that kills cancer cells when injected directly into tumors, destroying them from the inside, while also priming the immune system to attack the disease. (Reporting By Bill Berkot and Samantha Kareen Nair in Bengaluru; Editing by Anil D'Silva)
Cuban kids await 'do or die' cancer drug blocked by US trade ban
27 October 2015, 09:43:39 PM The US embargo on Cuba, which the UN General Assembly formally condemned Tuesday, is not about international politics for Elizabeth Navarro. As far as she's concerned, it's just what keeps her daughter from getting the cancer drug she needs. Navarro's daughter Noemi Bernardez, seven, had a brain tumor removed in September.
New book drops for US Supreme Court alter-ego 'Notorious RBG'
27 October 2015, 09:27:45 PM Black-robed and solemn, the nine justices of the US Supreme Court are not the most likely candidates for the Internet buzz, but Ruth Bader Ginsburg is no stranger to defying the odds. The contrast between the diminutive Jewish grandmother, just over 5 feet (1.5 meters) tall, and the well over 300-pound (135-kilogram) 1990s gangsta rapper Notorious B.I.G. has attracted a loyal Internet following. Now, the court-watcher behind the blog has released a new book chronicling Ginsburg's rise over sexism and cancer to the most powerful court in the United States -- and, unexpectedly, conquering the Internet.
New York's affair with charcuterie looks here to stay
27 October 2015, 09:20:57 PM Some New York shopkeepers worry that a boom in artisanal meat could be on the skids over heightened cancer fears, but well-heeled customers say they have no intention of ditching bacon. The warning from the World Health Organization that processed meats increase the risk of colorectal cancer and that red meat "probably" does too has put noses out of joint. "It sucks," says a clearly annoyed staff member at one of New York's most reputed charcuteries.
Germany's answer to WHO study: Don't be scared of sausages
27 October 2015, 08:53:13 PM
Sausages, like sunshine, are beneficial in moderation, Germany's agriculture minister said on Tuesday, after a World Health Organization (WHO) report warned that eating processed meats can cause cancer. The report, which classified processed meat as "carcinogenic to humans" on its group one list along with tobacco and asbestos, drew attention in Germany, the world's highest consumer of such products. "No one should be afraid if they eat a bratwurst (sausage) every now and then," Christian Schmidt, minister for food and agriculture, said in a statement emailed to Reuters.
#SmugVegetarians and bacon fans process their feelings over meat cancer warnings
27 October 2015, 06:17:37 PM Bacon might be one the most popular food items in social media, from its very own Facebook page with over 6 million likes to memes and recipes purporting that you really can make anything better if you add bacon to it. If you plan to speak ill of bacon, hot dogs, or other processed meat, you should generally prepare yourself to be greeted by a virtual army of angry fans. However, the reaction to the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recent report that “eating processed meat such as sausages and ham causes cancer…” was a mixture of sadness, panic, and joy. Fans turned to social media declaring that even cancer couldn’t stop their love for meat; non-fans seemingly delighted in and celebrated the possibility that other people might get cancer but not them. Processed meat dating : Find your bacon soulmate with Sizzl, the Oscar Mayer dating app In addition to processed meats being linked to cancer, the report notes that red meat may also be carcinogenic, placing nearly every type of meat product that people who love meat love, in the same category as smoking and asbestos. While the news understandably upset meat eaters who have likely spent their entire lives consuming large amounts of meat deemed dangerous in the report, vegetarians took to social media with hashtags such as #smugvegetarian to say, “I told you so,” and smokers got a once-in-a-lifetime chance to wag their fingers at people who might now be considered unhealthier than themselves. We’ve been quiet lately, but had to get on the #smugvegetarian train today. Vegetarian diet is the only diet. — The Real Veggie (@TheRealVeg) October 26, 2015 Bad news about #bacon bet there’s a fair few #SmugVegetarian people out there celebrating with an ‘told ya so’ dance pic.twitter.com/0RFQwTjOcJ — Popcorn (@PopcornOutdoor) October 26, 2015 All smokers can feel a little bit smug today- #WHO says processed meat causes cancer. #carcinogenic At least our packs told us so. — Waqqas Mir (@wordoflaw) October 26, 2015 The North American Meat Industry, among those upset about the recent WHO study, called the report, “dramatic and alarmist overreach,” while taking to social media themselves to respond. Janet Riley, Senior Vice President of Public Affairs at North American Meat also issued a statement via the meatnewsnetwork YouTube channel basically stating, you should keep eating meat because if you pay attention to the list of cancer-causing agents, “living on this planet is a hazard.” Perspective: of the 940 agents reviewed by IARC, only 1 found NOT to pose a cancer hazard, a chem in yoga pants. https://t.co/0C1iw30J9B — Janet Riley (@queenofwien) October 26, 2015 Which side are you on? And does it really matter?
Fear not, eat bratwurst, says German food minister
27 October 2015, 06:02:53 PM Germany's food and agriculture minister said Tuesday that people should not be afraid of biting into a grilled bratwurst despite the World Health Organization’s warning that sausages and ham cause cancer. "No one should be afraid when eating a bratwurst," said Christian Schmidt. "We worry people unnecessarily if we put meat in the same category as asbestos or tobacco," he added.
No prosciutto panic, please: Italian producers respond to WHO meat alarm
27 October 2015, 05:56:12 PM By Isla Binnie ROME (Reuters) - The home of Parma ham, trumpeting the benefits of a traditional Mediterranean diet, is urging consumers not to get into a prosciutto panic after a warning that processed meat can cause cancer. Italian food and farming groups responded indignantly to the World Health Organization (WHO) report that put cured meats, such as ham, sausage and salami, together with asbestos and tobacco on a list of carcinogens. The WHO said each 50-gram (1.76 oz) portion of processed meat - usually beef or pork which has been transformed through processes like salting and smoking - increased the risk of colorectal cancer by 18 percent.
Australia says linking sausages to tobacco risk 'a farce'
27 October 2015, 09:58:14 AM One of the world's top meat exporters Australia Tuesday ridiculed a landmark UN report linking sausages and ham to cancer, saying it was "a farce" to suggest they could be as lethal as cigarettes. The World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) analysed 800 studies from around the world and found that processed meats such as sausages, ham, and hot dogs cause bowel cancer, and red meat "probably" does too.
UN agency links hot dogs and other processed meat to cancer
27 October 2015, 06:17:31 AM PARIS (AP) — Bacon, hot dogs and cold cuts are under fire: The World Health Organization threw its global weight behind years of experts' warnings and declared Monday that processed meats raise the risk of colon and stomach cancer and that red meat is probably harmful, too.
Brazilians have a beef with UN meat warning
27 October 2015, 03:30:32 AM At Rio de Janeiro's famed Churrascaria Palace restaurant, the sizzling of steaks, the swish of carving knives and sighs of satisfied diners drowned out a UN warning that meat can cause cancer. Finishing an all-you-can-eat lunch, Gilson Gregoris, 59, said not even the United Nations could change his favorite menu. Brazilians are convinced carnivores.
Hot dog makers, meat sellers shake off WHO cancer report
27 October 2015, 12:00:07 AM Hot dog makers and meat sellers say a report from the World Health Organization labeling wieners, bacon and other processed meats as cancer-causers is baloney. WHO said Monday that processed meats raised ...
Sausages, ham cause cancer, red meat 'probably' too: agency
26 October 2015, 11:56:13 PM Sausages, ham and other processed meats cause bowel cancer, and red meat "probably" does too, a UN agency warned Monday, in a potentially heavy blow for the fast-growing livestock industry. A review of 800 studies from around the world found "sufficient evidence in humans that the consumption of processed meat causes colorectal cancer," said the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). For every 50 grammes (1.8 ounces) of meat eaten on a daily basis, the population-wide risk of developing colon cancer was 18 percent higher, said the agency.
Out-of-pocket health costs of dementia soar at the end of life
26 October 2015, 11:09:46 PM
By Lisa Rapaport (Reuters Health) - Families may spend almost twice as much caring for dementia patients at the end of life than they might if their loved one suffered from a different disease, a U.S. study suggests. Costs paid by Medicare, the U.S. health insurance program for the elderly, were similar over the final five years of life for patients with dementia, heart disease, cancer and other conditions, according to the study published today in the Annals of Internal Medicine. “Many costs related to daily care for patients with dementia are not covered by health insurance, and these care needs, including everything from supervision to bathing and feeding, may span several years,” lead author Dr. Amy Kelley of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York said by email.
Should I stop eating meat? No need, experts say
26 October 2015, 10:21:46 PM The UN's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) warned Monday that processed meats like sausages and ham cause bowel cancer, and red meat "probably" does too. By the IARC's own account, meat has "known health benefits". "This decision doesn't mean you need to stop eating any red and processed meat," said Tim Key, an epidemiologist at Cancer Research UK.
Carcinogens: They’re What’s for Dinner
26 October 2015, 08:43:22 PM If you’re trying to decide between eating bacon or steak for dinner, the World Health Organization has some new findings that could help guide your choice. Crispy strips of cured, smoked pork belly, according to WHO, cause cancer. Well, it might cause cancer too.
Data Visualizations: Red Meat and Colon Cancer
26 October 2015, 07:34:12 PM
The World Health Organization reported today that processed and red meat consumption can lead to colon cancer. The new report places processed meat in the highest category of agents classified as carcinogenic to humans, alongside cigarettes, alcohol and asbestos. Red meat is classified in the second-highest category of known carcinogens.
A look at other common cancer-causing substances
26 October 2015, 07:14:35 PM
PARIS (AP) — Hotdogs, bologna and other processed meats now rank alongside tobacco, alcohol and around 100 more substances on the International Agency for Research on Cancer's list of Group 1 carcinogens. In 2012, 14.1 million new cancer cases were diagnosed and 8.2 million cancer deaths were recorded, according to the IARC. Here's a look at some of the other things we encounter in daily life that the Lyon, France-based agency has found can cause cancer.
Cancer diagnosis brings income loss for families
26 October 2015, 07:12:57 PM
By Kathryn Doyle (Reuters Health) – The average U.S. adult diagnosed with cancer will miss five weeks of work in the first year and see total family income decline by 20 percent, according to a new study. “This is average effects across the entire population and many are retired or stay at home parents, so the effect is diluted,” said lead author Anna Zajacova of the University of Wyoming. The researchers used data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics between 1999 and 2009, a nationally representative study involving 8,000 families, or about 17,000 adults, including about 1,000 individuals with a cancer diagnosis.
26 October 2015, 06:32:39 PM
Chart compares cancer deaths attributable to a variety of factors including diets high in processed meat.; 2c x 4 inches; 96.3 mm x 101 mm;
Merck's Keytruda extends survival in lung cancer study
26 October 2015, 05:03:54 PM Merck & Co's approved Keytruda lung cancer treatment provided superior overall survival to chemotherapy in a late-stage study of patients with advanced disease whose tumors produce a protein called PD-L1 associated with increased risk of the disease. The U.S. drugmaker on Monday said patients taking the approved 2 milligram dosage of Keytruda and those taking an experimental 10 milligram dose had longer overall survival compared with those taking docetaxel, a standard treatment for non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most common form of lung cancer. Patients whose tumors had especially high levels of PD-L1 also went longer without a progression of disease than those taking docetaxel, Merck said.
WHO: Processed meat linked to cancer; red meat is risky too
26 October 2015, 04:43:34 PM It's official: Ham, hot dogs and other processed meats can lead to colon, stomach and other cancers — and red meat is probably cancer-causing, too. While doctors in rich countries have long warned against ...
Processed meat can cause cancer, red meat probably can: WHO
26 October 2015, 03:35:17 PM By Gus Trompiz PARIS (Reuters) - Eating processed meat can lead to bowel cancer in humans while red meat is a likely cause of the disease, World Health Organisation (WHO) experts said on Monday in findings that could sharpen debate over the merits of a meat-based diet. The France-based International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), part of the WHO, put processed meat such as hot dogs and ham in its group 1 list, which already includes tobacco, asbestos and diesel fumes, for which there is "sufficient evidence" of cancer links. "For an individual, the risk of developing colorectal (bowel) cancer because of their consumption of processed meat remains small, but this risk increases with the amount of meat consumed," Dr Kurt Straif of the IARC said in a statement.
Singer Andrew McMahon on the 'Lost Generation' of Young Adult Cancer Patients
26 October 2015, 02:57:21 PM
"You have cancer." Those three little, loaded words. When cancer found me, I was carving my path in the world as a singer-songwriter. You learn quickly that cancer is an inhospitable house guest: It shows up when you're least prepared and leaves your place ransacked with no money for a maid.
Sausages, ham are cancer-causing, red meat 'probably' too: UN agency
26 October 2015, 01:36:37 PM Eating sausages, ham and other processed meats causes colon cancer, and red meat "probably" does too, an arm of the World Health Organization said Monday. The findings support "recommendations to limit intake of meat," said the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which compiled a review of more than 800 studies on the link between a meat diet and cancer. "In view of the large number of people who consume processed meat, the global impact on cancer incidence is of public health importance," IARC official Kurt Straif said in a statement.
Soccer-Cruyff thanks emotional support since lung cancer diagnosis
26 October 2015, 12:48:38 PM
Johan Cruyff says the outpouring of support since he confirmed he was suffering from lung cancer have been emotional and heart warming but the leaking of the news disappointed him. Cruyff famously wore the No. 14 jersey throughout his colourful career with Ajax Amsterdam, Barcelona, Feyenoord and the Dutch national team. Spanish media broke news of the 68-year-old Cruyff's condition on Thursday, not long after he had consulted doctor in Barcelona, where he lives.
Timberwolves coach Saunders dies at age 60
26 October 2015, 04:45:12 AM (Reuters) - Minnesota Timberwolves president of basketball operations and head coach Flip Saunders has died at the age of 60 after a battle with cancer, the National Basketball Association (NBA) team said on Sunday. "It is with extreme sadness that the Minnesota Timberwolves today learned that Phil 'Flip' Saunders, who served as the team's President of Basketball Operations and Head Coach, in addition to being a minority owner of the team, passed away today at age 60," the team said in a statement. Saunders, a veteran of 17 NBA seasons who posted a career record of 654-592, was diagnosed with Hodgkins lymphoma, a cancer of the immune system, in June.
NBA-Timberwolves coach Saunders dies at age 60
26 October 2015, 04:38:00 AM
(Adds more reaction) Oct 25 (Reuters) - Minnesota Timberwolves president of basketball operations and head coach Flip Saunders has died at the age of 60 after a battle with cancer, the National Basketball Association (NBA) team said on Sunday. "It is with extreme sadness that the Minnesota Timberwolves today learned that Phil 'Flip' Saunders, who served as the team's President of Basketball Operations and Head Coach, in addition to being a minority owner of the team, passed away today at age 60," the team said in a statement. Saunders, a veteran of 17 NBA seasons who posted a career record of 654-592, was diagnosed with Hodgkins lymphoma, a cancer of the immune system, in June.
Johan Cruyff touched by support after cancer diagnosis
26 October 2015, 02:00:35 AM Dutch great Johan Cruyff said Monday the world of football had displayed its good side with the support shown to him since he revealed last week that he had been diagnosed with lung cancer. "I am enormously proud of the appreciation shown in all the responses," Cruyff wrote in his column for the leading Dutch daily De Telegraaf. The former Ajax and Barcelona star added that the affection that had been shown to him was "moving and heartwarming".
Legal tangle in California may shed light on specialty pharmacies
26 October 2015, 01:20:29 AM By David Ingram NEW YORK (Reuters) - As Valeant Pharmaceuticals prepares to defend its drug sales practices to Wall Street on Monday, new details are emerging about the tangled relationships - and litigation - among Valeant’s specialty pharmacy partners. The court cases, which have drawn media attention in recent days, are expected to be addressed during Monday morning's investor call, a person familiar with the matter said. Valeant lost more than 30 percent of its market value this past week as the company disclosed details of its relationship to a Pennsylvania-based pharmacy called Philidor Rx Services. Specialty pharmacies are designed to handle medicines that require complex storage or administration, often for serious conditions such as cancer or rheumatoid arthritis.
Minnesota Timberwolves coach Flip Saunders dies of cancer
25 October 2015, 10:37:57 PM MINNEAPOLIS (AP) — Flip Saunders, who rose from the backwaters of basketball's minor leagues to become one of the most powerful men in the NBA as coach, team president and part owner of the Minnesota Timberwolves, died Sunday, the team said. He was 60.
NBA Timberwolves president and coach Saunders dead at 60
25 October 2015, 10:12:24 PM Phil "Flip" Saunders, coach and president of the NBA's Minnesota Timberwolves, died Sunday at age 60 after a battle with cancer, the team announced. Saunders won more than 1,000 games over a coaching career that spanned 35 years. As an NBA coach, Saunders went 654-594 with Minnesota, Detroit and Washington.
Basket - Timberwolves president and coach Saunders dead at 60
25 October 2015, 09:47:53 PM - Phil "Flip" Saunders, coach and president of the NBA's Minnesota Timberwolves, died Sunday at age 60 after a battle with cancer, the team announced. Saunders announced in August that he was being treated for Hodgkin's lymphoma and that it was considered treatable. "It is with extreme sadness that the Minnesota Timberwolves today learned that Phil 'Flip' Saunders, who served as the team’s President of Basketball Operations and Head Coach, in addition to being a minority owner of the team, passed away today at age 60," a club statement said.
Saunders to miss T-Wolves season after cancer treatment
24 October 2015, 07:36:10 PM Flip Saunders will not return to coach the NBA Minnesota Timberwolves this season while he continues to undergo treatment for cancer, team owner Glen Taylor said. Saunders missed the entire pre-season schedule for the T-Wolves after being diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma in June, but he was expected back at some point during the season. "Not this year," Taylor said.
NHL star 'Original Blue' Roberts dies at 75
24 October 2015, 10:44:34 AM Jimmy Roberts, a five-time Stanley Cup champion and the first player taken by the St. Louis Blues in the 1967 NHL expansion draft, died of cancer on Friday at the age of 75. "The St. Louis Blues and the Blues Alumni organization are deeply saddened by the passing of the original Blue Jimmy Roberts," the team said in a statement. "Jimmy was the franchise's first-ever draft pick and was instrumental in building the foundation of Blues hockey as a player and upholding its tradition as an alumnus.
Clinic offers rare hope for Sudan breast cancer patients
24 October 2015, 05:20:12 AM Local doctors told Aida Abdulla her chest pain was an infection, arthritis or muscle strain. Now she is preparing for surgery at the Khartoum Breast Care Centre (KBCC), the only specialised hospital in Sudan, a country of more than 30 million. Everyone was worried because we have never seen this illness before," said the 49-year-old, dressed in purple and orange robes in a spotless clinic at the KBCC.
NHL-National Hockey League roundup
24 October 2015, 12:32:21 AM
Jimmy Roberts, a five-time Stanley Cup champion with the Montreal Canadiens and the first player taken by the St. Louis Blues in the 1967 NHL expansion draft, died of cancer Friday. "The St. Louis Blues and the Blues Alumni organization are deeply saddened by the passing of the original Blue Jimmy Roberts," the team said in a statement. "His tireless contributions to St. Louis, the Blues and the game of hockey as a whole will forever live as an example for future generations to follow.
FDA clears J&J's chemotherapy for certain soft tissue sarcomas
23 October 2015, 10:56:35 PM The U.S. Food and Drug Administration said it approved Johnson & Johnson's chemotherapy to treat specific soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) that have spread to other parts of the body or cannot be removed by surgery. The drug, Yondelis, is designed to delay the progression of cancer that occurs in fat cells called liposarcoma (LPS) or smooth muscle cells called leiomyosarcoma (LMS) - two rare and aggressive forms of cancer with limited treatment options. J&J said that while the FDA approved Yondelis to treat both LPS and LMS, which account for about 35 percent of all STS cases, the drug is the first treatment to be specifically approved for LPS in the United States.
Spectrum says FDA declines to approve Evomela for injection
23 October 2015, 07:51:17 AM
(Reuters) - Biotechnology company Spectrum Pharmaceuticals Inc said the U.S. Food and Drug Administration declined to approve its Evomela injection to treat patients with multiple myeloma, a form of blood cancer that arises from plasma cells found in bone marrow. Spectrum Pharmaceuticals said it received a complete response letter, which the FDA sends to let a drug developer know a marketing application will not be approved in its present form. The FDA did not identify any clinical deficiency in its application, the company said.
BIDEN URGES US TO REGAIN OUR SENSE OF NATIONAL PURPOSE
23 October 2015, 02:39:26 AM
After Joe Biden's Rose Garden announcement, news reports naturally focused on his decision not to seek the presidency. That theme underlay Biden's clarion call for a "moonshot" to cure cancer. As he noted -- "It's personal," he said -- his grief over the untimely death of his son, Beau Biden, fueled his sense of urgency.
Dutch great Johan Cruyff diagnosed with lung cancer
23 October 2015, 12:09:59 AM Dutch legend Johan Cruyff, regarded as one of the world's greatest-ever footballers, has been diagnosed with lung cancer, his management team said on Thursday, as messages of support poured in. "In the last few weeks Johan Cruyff has undergone medical tests at a Barcelona hospital. "To respect Johan and his family's privacy and because tests have not been finalised, no further information will be given at this stage," Thate added.
This 3D printed acoustic violin sounds just as good as the real thing
22 October 2015, 10:58:39 PM These days, 3D printing experts can make virtually anything out of a few grams of PLA. However, it’s still fairly difficult to print full musical instruments (or even instrument parts) that produce high-quality sound comparable to the kind created by instruments manufactured in a more traditional manner. But that’s exactly what makers Kaitlyn and Matt Hova have done. Their completely 3D printed violin is proof that there’s no reason for an instrument’s acoustic quality to suffer just because it was made with a MakerBot. With Kaitlyn’s experience as a professional violinist, neuroscientist, and software engineer at 3D Robotics –as well as Matt’s diverse careers in record production and electrical engineering– the husband and wife team have all the bases covered for this project. The Hovalin is a fully functional 3D printed violin that sounds nearly indistinguishable from a world-class wooden version. What’s more, the Hovalin team designed the violin in such a way that it requires less than one kilogram of PLA to make. This helps keep production costs low, as the cost of raw materials comes in at around $70. However, if you don’t have access to a 3D printer, a prefabricated and fully-assembled Hovalin will cost $600. Related: Cancer patient undergoes world’s first 3D printed sternum replacement surgery 3D printed musical instruments aren’t an entirely new endeavor, but Kaitlyn found that the novelty of the violin kits she had found elsewhere soon wore off when she realized the sound quality wasn’t up to par. The Hovalin was inspired both by the FFFiddle, an electric 3D printed violin, and the classic Stradivarius violin. From its inspiration in the best of 3D printed technology and the world’s most reputed violins, the Hovalin strives to straddle arts and technology in order to make a difference in the future of STEM education. In fact, STEAM (STEM alongside the Arts) is a project that the Hovalin duo take to heart, and it’s easy to see why. 3D printed instruments and accessories could help schools find funding for music programs through STEAM grants, and empower kids to take a hands-on approach to their own arts education by being a part of the process from start to finish. “Giving kids the chance to teach themselves how to use CAD and 3D printing programs empowers kids to solve problems in a creative, effective way which will create the ‘makers’ of the future,” said Kaitlyn Hova. The Hovalin is particularly accessible thanks to the specialized 3D printing kits available for every level of maker. For the experienced or ambitious 3D printing enthusiast, the full kit includes STL files to 3D print the parts for your own Hovalin and assemble it from scratch with the included strings, rosin, tuner, and a carrying case. If you’d prefer a head start in your Hovalin kit, you can order the various parts pre-printed and ready for assembly. Of course, you can also order a complete, assembled, ready-to-play Hovalin directly from the team and immediately jump into the experience of top-quality acoustics emanating from a 3D-printed instrument.
FDA clears Merrimack's pancreatic cancer drug with warning
22 October 2015, 09:47:41 PM
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration on Thursday approved Merrimack Pharmaceutical Inc's pancreatic cancer drug, Onivyde, with a severe safety warning. Onivyde, in combination with chemotherapy treatments 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin, aims to treat metastatic pancreatic cancer in patients, who have failed to respond to chemotherapy drug gemcitabine. There will be 48,960 new cases of pancreatic cancer diagnosed in the United States this year, the National Cancer Institute estimates.
Soccer-Dutch great Cruyff diagnosed with lung cancer
22 October 2015, 05:48:29 PM
* Tests show former Ajax, Barca player has cancer * Cruyff undergoing treatment in Barcelona * Former smoker had heart surgery in 1991 (Adds confirmation from official website) MADRID, Oct 22 (Reuters) - Johan Cruyff, one of soccer's greatest ever players and most influential coaches, has been diagnosed with lung cancer. A statement on his official website (www.cruyff.com) on Thursday said the cancer had been discovered following recent tests in Barcelona.
Lilly beats forecasts on cost cuts, raises 2015 view
22 October 2015, 03:09:21 PM Eli Lilly & Co reported sharply better-than-expected quarterly earnings due to cost controls and sales of new treatments for diabetes and cancer, keeping the U.S. drugmaker on track for its planned return to growth this year. Lilly, whose shares rose 1.5 percent in premarket trading, raised its full-year profit to reflect expected investment gains and lower spending on research and marketing. "We are encouraged by the combination of Lilly's new product cycle coupled with expense management, which we see driving healthy earnings growth over the next five years" or longer, J.P. Morgan analyst Chris Schott said in a research note.
ImmunoGen, Roche gastric cancer drug fails study
22 October 2015, 02:29:37 PM (Reuters) - ImmunoGen Inc said the gastric cancer drug it is developing with Roche Holding AG did not meet the main goal in a large study. ImmunoGen entered into a royalty purchase agreement with Roche for Kadcyla this year. Kadcyla, approved in 2013 for the treatment of late-stage breast cancer, was being tested as a second-line treatment for gastric cancer in the late-stage study.
Soccer-Cruyff diagnosed with lung cancer: reports
22 October 2015, 01:00:26 PM
Johan Cruyff, one of soccer's greatest players and most influential coaches, has been diagnosed with lung cancer, according to reports in Spanish media on Thursday. Cruyff's foundation could not immediately confirm the reports of his illness but said they were planning to publish a news release later on Thursday. Cruyff had been diagnosed with the illness this week at a clinic in Barcelona and was having tests to determine the seriousness of his condition, according to the reports, which did not identify the source of the information.
Specialty pharmacies in spotlight as Valeant ties questioned
22 October 2015, 12:49:35 PM By Deena Beasley LOS ANGELES (Reuters) - Investor concerns over accounting practices at Valeant Pharmaceuticals International Inc have put a spotlight on the little-known and fast-growing specialty pharmacy industry. Shares of Valeant fell 19 percent on Wednesday after influential short-seller Citron Research accused the company of using specialty pharmacies, through a network led by its partner Philidor Rx Services, to inflate its revenue, an allegation the drugmaker denied. Specialty pharmacies are designed to deliver medications with unique handling, storage and distribution requirements, often for patients with complex conditions such as cancer, multiple sclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis.
Prolonged exposure to low doses of radiation ups cancer risk: study
22 October 2015, 12:48:46 PM Prolonged exposure to even low doses of radiation increases the risk of cancer, according to a new study of workers in the nuclear sector in Britain, France and the United States. The results, published Wednesday in the British Medical Journal, provides "direct evidence about cancer risks after protracted exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation," said the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the cancer agency of the World Health Organization, which coordinated the study. The findings demonstrate "a significant association between increasing radiation dose and risk of all solid cancers," said the study's co-author IARC researcher Dr Ausrele Kesminiene.
Iowa taxidermist sentenced to 27 months for illegal rhino horn trade
22 October 2015, 03:18:47 AM
James Hess of Maquoketa, Iowa, will also have three years of supervised release after serving his prison term, according to documents filed with the U.S. District Court in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, for the sentence handed down on Tuesday. Prosecutors said Hess was involved in the purchase and resale of at least two sets of black rhino horns in 2011. International crime syndicates often acquire rhino horns, which are used in traditional Asian medicine and sell at prices higher than gold in Vietnam, where a belief, with no scientific basis, exists that they can cure cancer.
Joe Biden says he is ‘out of time’ to run for president in livestream
21 October 2015, 08:36:12 PM Earlier today, Vice President Joe Biden, 72, live streamed his announcement that he will not run for the Democratic nomination in the race for President of the United States in the 2016 elections. Speaking on the Rose Garden outside of the White House with his wife Jill Biden and President Barack Obama on his sides, Vice President Biden stated the “window” of time to mount a presidential race campaign had closed. Vice President Biden did admit the decision was not due to his family and their mourning of Joe Biden’s son, Beau Biden, whom passed away from brain cancer in late May. “I’ve said many times my family has suffered a loss and I hope it comes a time, sooner, rather than later, when you think of your loved ones it brings a smile to your lips and not a tear to your eyes. I am proud to say, the Biden family have reached that point.” Related: Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, and others pledge support for student arrested over homemade clock While Biden’s speech was to decline entering the presidential race, he did start proposing plans that sounded like a platform a presidential candidate would run on. He prosed free public college education, distinguished Republicans as “our opposition, not our enemies” and even spoke on the exorbitant amount of funding for political races being “fundamental threat” to democracy because “just several hundred families control the process.” He even believes America is “so much better positioned than any other country” to lead the world in the 21st century. This would have been the third time Joe Biden had run for President of the United States following two unsuccessful attempts in 1988 and 2008. For a man willing to tell the world “middle class” to the politicians in Washington usually means “you’re not that educated,” Joe Biden’s announcement sent ripples through social media. In summation, a lot of folks still really wants him to be President: I always respected Joe Biden for being too stupid to be corrupt. — David Burge (@iowahawkblog) October 21, 2015 Now is our best LAST chance to say what a great President @joeBiden would have made. Cheers to you Veep! #Biden — Hilary Rosen (@hilaryr) October 21, 2015
Web module helps patients decide about lung cancer screening
21 October 2015, 07:58:54 PM
By Kathryn Doyle (Reuters Health) – A brief web-based decision aid gives current or former smokers individualized feedback on whether or not lung cancer screening is right for them, according to a small study. “We know that well designed decision aids are effective in improving knowledge about medical interventions and helping individuals make the best decision for them,” said senior author Rafael Meza of the School of Public Health at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. “We were glad to learn that the tool was effective,” Meza told Reuters Health.
Biden Bows Out, Ceding the Democratic Field to Clinton
21 October 2015, 07:17:00 PM
Vice President Joe Biden on Wednesday said that he will not enter the race for the Democratic presidential nomination, apparently ceding the Democratic primary field to former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and marking the end of a decades-long career in elected office. The announcement was made in the White House Rose Garden with Biden flanked by President Obama and his wife, Dr. Jill Biden. The political world has been on tenterhooks for weeks awaiting Biden’s decision – something that was delayed by the death of the vice president’s son, Beau Biden, of cancer this summer.
Alcohol found to increase risk of breast cancer
21 October 2015, 06:11:59 PM A major new study involving more than 300,000 female volunteers confirms a link between alcohol intake and breast cancer and finds that the risk increases with each additional daily drink. Five Spanish universities and 334,850 women between the ages of 35 and 70 from ten European countries were involved in the research, which confirms previous evidence of a link between alcohol intake and breast cancer. Over the course of the 11-year monitoring study, 11,576 participants were diagnosed with breast cancer.
Is There a Doctor on the Plane?
21 October 2015, 03:48:57 PM
A New York doctor was recently declared a hero after creating a makeshift nebulizer device for a toddler having an asthma attack during a transatlantic flight. Using nothing but what was immediately available, Dr. Khurshid Guru, director of robotic surgery at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, New York, neutralized a situation that was potentially life-threatening for the 2-year-old -- a situation that may not have been necessary if the child's family had packed the right medication in their carry-on luggage. You shouldn't assume there will be, says Dr. William Brady, a professor of emergency medicine and internal medicine at the University of Virginia School of Medicine in Charlottesville.
Heading to the ER? Use Twitter to find hospitals with the best care
21 October 2015, 03:44:51 PM If you’ve ever wondered how pleasant an experience you can expect at your local hospital, you might be able to get an idea from data provided by an unexpected source — Twitter. CrowdClinical, a site in HealthMap, analyzes tweets shared by patients describing their experiences in hospitals. Through the use of supervised machine learning, natural language processing, and manual curation, tweets shared by patients are used to identify and rate hospitals in terms of trustworthiness, quality of health care, and patient satisfaction. Related : Doctor on Demand wants you to skip the ER visit for a video chat on your phone Although CrowdClinical has only been monitoring tweets for hospital information since February 22, 2015, they have been able to create a list of the top 10 hospital rankings to date. These compilations include lists of the hospitals with the most followers, which according to CrowdClinical is an indication of the hospital’s social media success, as well as the hospitals with the most active engagement on Twitter, indicating that the hospital is in “listening mode” and possibly more attentive to patients. The Mayo Clinic (@mayoclinic) leads in having the most followers, with 1,214,922 of them, and Kaiser Permanente snagged first place for being the most active and leading in social media success. Perhaps the more interesting list for patients or prospective patients, though, is the one that rates hospitals in providing the most positive patient experience. To rate the hospitals that provide the best experience, CloudClinical first detected tweets indicating any type of patient experience and then determined whether the sentiment expressed was positive or negative. Hospitals that had more than 20 such tweets were analyzed for the list. Follow their link for more, but here are the top five of CloudClinical’s top 10 hospitals for patient sentiment, based on CloudClinical’s rating system: Seattle Children’s Hospital Twitter: @seattlechildren Mayo Clinic Twitter: @mayoclinic Boston Children’s Hospital Twitter: @bostonchildrens Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Twitter: @childrensphila Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Twitter: @danafarber
Yes, Cervix Selfies Are Happening in Kenya—for a Good Cause
21 October 2015, 01:37:11 PM Okal Triza didn’t want her teachers to find out she was getting screened for cervical cancer. More than a quarter of a million women die of cervical cancer every year, almost as many as are killed by pregnancy or childbirth complications. “Every woman screened is a potential life saved,” said Curtis Peterson, the head of partnerships at MobileODT.
Novartis broadens cancer immune therapy pipeline with acquisition, pacts
21 October 2015, 12:08:36 PM Novartis has broadened its immuno-oncology pipeline with the acquisition of Admune Therapeutics and through licensing agreements with small drug developers Xoma and Palobiofarma. Palobiofarma, a Spanish biotech company, said separately it entered into a $15 million licensing agreement with the Swiss group. Novartis said in a statement on Wednesday these transactions add Admune's IL-15 agonist program, Palobiofarma's adenosine receptor and Xoma's TGF-beta inhibition programs to its own immuno-oncology portfolio.
Begin Mammograms at Age 45, New Guidelines Say
21 October 2015, 08:01:45 AM
Women with an average risk of breast cancer should begin getting mammograms annually at age 45, according to new guidelines from the American Cancer Society (ACS). "The guideline-development group concluded that the risk of cancer is lower for women ages 40 to 44," and the risk of false positives is somewhat higher, compared with women in the 45-to-49 age group, said Elizabeth T. H. Fontham, a co-author of the guidelines and the dean of the Louisiana State University's School of Public Health in New Orleans. "So a direct recommendation to begin screening at age 40 was no longer warranted." A false positive is an error in a test result that indicates a woman has breast cancer when she actually does not.
11 Moles on Your Arm May Signal Higher Melanoma Risk
21 October 2015, 08:00:57 AM
People who have 11 or more moles on one of their arms could have a higher risk of the deadly skin cancer melanoma, according to a new study. Researchers counted the number of moles that study participants had on 17 sites on the skin of their bodies — such as the left leg, the chest and the back — and found that the arms were the site that was the best indicator of the total number of moles on the whole body. For example, women with at least seven moles on an arm were nine times more likely to have at least 50 moles on their entire body than those who had fewer than seven moles on their right arm.
Synta halts study of lung cancer treatment, stock plummets
21 October 2015, 03:00:13 AM
(Reuters) - Synta Pharmaceuticals Corp has decided to end a late-stage trial of its lung cancer treatment after an independent review said it proved ineffective, nearly halving its stock in extended trading on Tuesday. Lexington, Massachusetts-based Synta's shares were down 46.6 percent at $1.09 after the bell. The late stage study aimed to see if a combination of its drug ganetespib with chemotherapy drug docetaxel would work better than docetaxel alone for advanced non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma.
Women urged to wait until 45 for breast cancer screenings
20 October 2015, 09:42:07 PM In a controversial shift, a leading US medical association on Tuesday urged women to wait until the age of 45 before getting an annual mammogram to screen for breast cancer. The American Cancer Society previously recommended women be screened each year from age 40, but has changed its advice because evidence failed to show enough lives are being saved. "Since the last American Cancer Society (ACS) breast cancer screening update for average-risk women was published in 2003, new evidence has accumulated from long-term follow-up of randomized controlled trials and observational studies," said the guidelines, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).
Cancer group's mammogram advice: Start later and get fewer
20 October 2015, 08:34:35 PM CHICAGO (AP) — The American Cancer Society now says women should start mammograms later in life and get fewer of them, a stance that puts the trusted group closer to an influential government task force's advice.
Petticoat Junction Star Pat Woodell Dies at 71
20 October 2015, 07:39:00 PM Pat Woodell, who played Bobbie Jo Bradley on the 1960s sitcom Petticoat Junction , died of cancer on Sept. 29 at her home in Fallbrook, Calif., The Associated Press reports. She was 71. Born in Winthrop, Mass., Woodell played the brunette brainiac Bobbie Jo on the first two seasons of Petticoat ... Read More > Other Links From TVGuide.com Pat Woodell Petticoat Junction This article, Petticoat Junction Star Pat Woodell Dies at 71, originally appeared on TVGuide.com.
Breast cancer screening advice from 2 major groups compared
20 October 2015, 06:44:08 PM
CHICAGO (AP) — Advice varies on when women should start getting screened for breast cancer and how often. The American Cancer Society revised its guidelines Tuesday, bringing them more in line with those of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, an influential government-appointed panel.
American Cancer Society eases mammogram recommendations
20 October 2015, 05:05:18 PM By Andrew M. Seaman (Reuters Health) - In a major shift, the American Cancer Society is recommending that women at average risk of breast cancer get annual mammograms starting at age 45 rather than at age 40, and that women 55 and older scale back screening to every other year. The new guidelines, published on Tuesday in JAMA, fall more closely in line with guidelines from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, a government-backed panel of experts that recommend biennial breast cancer screening starting at age 50 for most women. The Task Force's 2009 recommendations to reduce the frequency and delay the start of mammogram screening were based on studies suggesting the benefits of detecting cancers earlier did not outweigh the risk of false positive results, which needlessly expose women to additional testing, including a possible biopsy.
Fergie launches 'Outspoken Party!' fragrance with Avon
20 October 2015, 04:02:21 PM To celebrate the launch of her fragrance "Outspoken Party!" and raise awareness about breast cancer, Fergie joined representatives from Avon at a special event. On October 20, Avon announced that singer Fergie had launched a new fragrance for women. Fergie also took to the decks to DJ at the event.
More Reasons to Eat a Mediterranean-Style Diet
20 October 2015, 12:00:00 PM
The traditional Mediterranean diet is considered the gold standard when it comes to healthy eating -- it's a diet that promotes both vitality and longevity. Take, for example, the results from the landmark Mediterranean diet human clinical trial (called PREDIMED), which confirms that eating a Mediterranean-style diet supplemented daily with nuts (primarily walnuts) cuts the risk of heart disease by 30 percent and stroke by 49 percent compared to a low-fat diet. Another study published in JAMA: Internal Medicine reported a significant reduction in breast cancer risk among post-menopausal women in Spain who adhered to a Mediterranean diet rich in extra-virgin olive oil.
First Fukushima worker diagnosed with radiation-linked cancer: Japan official
20 October 2015, 01:50:12 PM A former Fukushima nuclear plant worker has been diagnosed with radiation-linked cancer, Japanese officials said Tuesday, and an expert said the first confirmed case since the 2011 accident could be just the "tip of the iceberg". A health ministry official said the unnamed man, who was in his thirties while working at the plant following the 2011 crisis, has leukaemia. The announcement will likely further inflame widespread public opposition to nuclear power, and could frustrate efforts to resettle evacuees in communities around the crippled Fukushima plant that have been deemed safe.
Ex-Fukushima nuclear plant worker confirmed to have cancer
20 October 2015, 01:03:02 PM
TOKYO (AP) — Japan's government says a former worker at the Fukushima nuclear plant is the first person confirmed to have developed cancer from radiation exposure after meltdowns at three of the plant's reactors.
Japan acknowledges possible radiation casualty at Fukushima nuclear plant
20 October 2015, 11:02:29 AM Japan on Tuesday acknowledged the first possible casualty from radiation at the wrecked Fukushima nuclear power plant, a worker who was diagnosed with cancer after the crisis broke out in 2011. The health ministry's recognition of radiation as a possible cause may set back efforts to recover from the disaster, as the government and the nuclear industry have been at pains to say that the health effects from radiation have been minimal. More than 160,000 people were forced from their homes after the meltdowns at the Fukushima Daiichi plant following an earthquake and tsunami in March 2011, the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl 25 years earlier.
Detroit pitcher Norris to have cancer surgery
20 October 2015, 04:17:50 AM (Reuters) - Detroit Tigers pitcher Daniel Norris will undergo surgery for a cancerous growth on his thyroid after being diagnosed earlier this year. Norris made the revelation on his Instagram account on Monday, explaining that he was diagnosed in May but had opted to finish the regular season before having the procedure done. Just keep playing." The Tigers, who acquired Norris in a trade with Toronto in July, said they were aware of his condition when they made the move and expect him to make a full recovery.
Baseball-Detroit pitcher Norris to have cancer surgery
20 October 2015, 04:02:47 AM
Detroit Tigers pitcher Daniel Norris will undergo surgery for a cancerous growth on his thyroid after being diagnosed earlier this year. Norris made the revelation on his Instagram account on Monday, explaining that he was diagnosed in May but had opted to finish the regular season before having the procedure done. Just keep playing." The Tigers, who acquired Norris in a trade with Toronto in July, said they were aware of his condition when they made the move and expect him to make a full recovery.
Baseball-Major League Baseball roundup
20 October 2015, 01:56:55 AM
Detroit Tigers pitcher Daniel Norris revealed Monday that he is battling a form of thyroid cancer. The 22-year-old left-hander said through his Instagram account that he was diagnosed with a malignant growth during the baseball season and will soon undergo surgery. Norris said a doctor determined he could finish the season before undergoing the procedure.
Stop What You're Doing and Count the Number of Moles on Your Arm Right Now
19 October 2015, 07:16:05 PM Researchers say that the number of moles on your arm is a good predictor of your skin cancer risk — and examining a specific portion of your arm will give you the most accurate info. Researchers from King’s College London found that having more than 11 moles on your arm is an indicator of an increased risk of developing skin cancer. Those who had 11 on the right arm were more likely to have more than 100 moles total — a skin cancer risk predictor. In the US, however, it would be your left arm that sees more sun — so Americans should count moles on their left arms. (Most adults have between 10 and 40 moles on their body, according to the American Academy of Dermatology.) One in five Americans will develop skin cancer during his or her lifetime, according to the Skin Cancer Foundation, and an estimated 73,780 new cases of invasive melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer, will be diagnosed in 2015.
Fargo "Before the Law" Review: The Quiet Before the Storm (and Aliens)
19 October 2015, 06:10:00 PM Fargo S02E02: "Before the Law" Get in the groove while you read this review with the opening track to "Before the Law," Bobbie Gentry's 1967 rump-shaker "Reunion." Think about what "Before the Law" was: extra-long (59 minutes!) when it probably didn't need to be, mostly set-up without any action or trademark Fargo violence to slap you in the face to make sure you were watching, and slow buildup that involved non-speaking lingering shots of characters staring at nothing. So why was "Before the Law" so good? What we're quickly learning is because Fargo , that's why. With the fireworks and inciting incidents of "Waiting for Dutch"—Otto's stroke, Rye's death via Peggymobile and Ed's hands—out of the way, Fargo was able to settle into storytelling mode in Episode 2. And because Fargo is just as interested in the baby steps as the giant foot stomps, "Before the Law" lingered and dangled when compared to the highlight episodes of Season 1 and the Season 2 premiere. There was no rush to get through things, but thanks to slick (dare I say, cool?) packaging, it wasn't anything close to a bore. Take the quick montage of Ed and Peggy fairly early in the episode. The shot beautifully tracked backward from the hole in Peggy's windshield where Rye smashed into it out to Ed sitting in a chair and cycling through his mind everything that was coming now that he was complicit with Peggy's hit-and-run crime and committed murder, albeit in self-defense, himself. It was a quiet moment but it was also dazzling as the screen split in two and we saw Ed on the left just idling there and Peggy meticulously getting herself ready or wiping off the evidence from her person. This scene worked—in fact it was probably my favorite from the episode—because it checked off the box of explaining Ed's commitment to standing by his wife during her colossal fuck up. Ladies, this man is a good husband. He's taking the lumps for his wife, he's cleaning the car for his wife, he's dismembering Rye for his wife, he's grinding up Rye into ground meat for his wife. And the look on his face said it all: he had no other choice. He's stuck here putting a former human being that he killed through a meat grinder. It's not the most exciting stuff for a show to go through, and typically in other, lamer shows this would be done with the husband hugging his wife and shushing her sobs while saying, "I'm here for you, baby," but here the psychology of Ed was richer and deeper. Other characters received similar treatment as they sat down to contemplate their existences quietly. Betsy and Lou shared a screen with Betsy getting treatment for her cancer while Lou worked, and their juxtaposition showed how strong their bond was, particularly when Lou promised to take Betsy to her next appointment even though she told him not to worry about it because of the big case. Also, it was incredibly sad considering what we know about Betsy's future. Elsewhere, Dodd Gerhardt clearly took it personally that he wasn't named boss with Otto incapable because of his stroke, and we saw him stew about it around a table all by his lonesome. These were small moments that Fargo used so well to prepare for what's down the road for these characters just by virtue of hanging out with them during these moments of statuesque emotional reflection and inner conflict. At the same time, I see why Indiewire's Sam Adams—who might be the only person in the world to write a negative review of Season 2—called Fargo "overstated" in "its constant efforts to underline the premise's significance," because these scenes really hammered home ideas that we can already infer. But Fargo is hammering these home because they are important to the story, and because the scenes themselves are so beautiful, they're never boring and beg for empathy. As I said last week, Fargo loves to show and not tell, and I'll take this over any lughead specifically and awkwardly stating his/her emotions to another character. But just because people sat in chairs quietly doesn't mean "Before the Law" was without tension. In fact, for me, these moments fueled tension by clearly setting characters on paths as obvious as footprints in fresh snowfall. We know Dodd will fight for what he thinks is his rightful role atop the Gerhardt crime family, we know Ed will do all he can to help Peggy get away with near-murder and that he's likely to show cracks, and we know Lou's investigation will be at least partially interrupted by his wife's worsening health. Peggy's coworker will no doubt be a problem down the line once the investigation inches closer to her, because she knows Peggy is a T.P. thief and maybe into some rough stuff. And the encounter between the K.C. crew—Mike Milligan and his twin muscle—and Hank teased what's certainly in store. As far as set-up episodes go, "Before the Law" got some serious work done that will pay off down the line. All right, let's talk about aliens, and I'll try to not make this painful for either of us. Rye saw a UFO in Episode 1. That's what I saw, and I'm sticking with it, because that was no weather balloon or kids playing a prank. And in "Before the Law," the episode closed with sampled narration talking about the existence of extraterrestrial life watching over us like scientists through a microscope as the unmistakable lights of the UFO reflected off the butcher shop where Ed was grinding up Rye. What the fudge is going on here? Season 1 had its share of religious undertones (and overtones), and it looks like creator Noah Hawley may be continuing the themes of judgment and being watched with unexplained alien phenomena. God and nature played a big part in Season 1 (Lester was swallowed by the Earth), and here the aliens played witness to Rye and Ed's acts of crime. I doubt, but secretly hope, that the aliens will come down in the season finale and vaporize everyone with super technology, but for a weirdo gag that highlights various themes, I'm super into it. NOTES, EH – I love the names in the Gerhardt clan: Otto, Floyd, Dodd, Bear, Rye. – The music in Fargo is amazing. Amazing. – Ed burned all his clothes to cover his tracks in connection with Rye's murder, but the belt buckle remains. How will that come back to haunt him? – Jesse Plemons' naked body is something, eh? Apparently he put on weight for another role and kept it on for Fargo . He had breasts!
Cancer drug shows promise against Parkinson's disease
19 October 2015, 04:46:50 PM A cancer drug may be helpful in improving memory and motor skills in patients with Parkinson's disease, according to preliminary research presented at a US medical conference this weekend. The trial at Georgetown University involved 12 people who had Parkinson's or a related condition called Lewy body dementia.
3D mammography use is on the rise, and may improve breast cancer detection
19 October 2015, 04:32:52 PM Breast cancer screening is important for women over 40, and new 3D mammography units may prove to be more effective in diagnosing this disease. Digital tomosynthesis was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2011. Hospitals across the country have been adopting the technology ever since, and its use continues to be on the rise. Hologic, a leading manufacturer of tomosynthesis units, cites a report for the healthcare research firm KLAS on their website, finding that “65% of the providers surveyed by KLAS planned to invest in breast tomosynthesis technology during the next two years, up from 57% in 2014. The study notes that many respondents who said they did not intend to purchase had already upgraded to tomosynthesis.” Related: $400 million mammogram software may be worthless 3D mammograms are performed at the same time as the 2D. Sara Friedwald, medical director of the Lynn Sage Comprehensive Breast Cancer Center in Chicago, provided a simple description to the Detroit Free Press. “A 2D mammogram is like looking at a closed book, and you just see the front cover. With the 3D mammogram, we can page through the breast and see what’s inside.” She goes on to say that the new technology has been shown to improve the detection of invasive breast cancers. Hologic Inc. “The advantage and impact of 3D mammography over 2D is that we detect 40 percent more invasive killer cancers and decrease the false alarms by 15 percent,” said Mary Hayes, M.D., Chief of Breast Imaging at the Memorial Healthcare System, in an interview with Ivanhoe. In addition, more accurate screening means fewer callbacks and repeated procedures, reducing the patient’s exposure to radiation. The combined use of both machines also results in radiation that is below the FDA’s limit of 3 mGy (milligray) per exposure. 3D mammogram machines can cost $500,000 or more; twice the price of the 2D machines. This may cause issues with insurance, but with Medicare coverage and more major carriers providing coverage for the procedure, it is already clear that more women will be screened under this latest technology.
Arm mole count could indicate skin cancer risk: study
19 October 2015, 02:55:48 PM Counting the number of moles on a person's right arm could indicate vulnerability to skin cancer, with 11 or more moles being a "strong predictor" of melanoma, research published Monday suggested. The study in the British Journal of Dermatology found that the number of moles on the right arm was the closest predictor of the number on the entire body.
Rival Hostesses Do Battle Over Thanksgiving Honors
18 October 2015, 07:09:10 AM
DEAR ABBY: I have been hosting Thanksgiving for most of my married life -- 44 years. When my children married, I told them we could celebrate all the holidays whenever and wherever they chose, but I wanted Thanksgiving.Two years ago, my daughter-in-law asked to spend Thanksgiving with her parents and sister, and I reluctantly agreed. Her mom was battling cancer, so I said she could have Thanksgiving with her parents. This year I received an email that SHE will be hosting it at her house with her parents and hoped we would come! I was upset that she didn't even discuss this with me. ...
Canadian PM stumps for votes with ex drug-using Toronto mayor
18 October 2015, 04:45:15 AM By Rod Nickel TORONTO (Reuters) - Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, battling for votes in the crucial suburbs of Toronto just two days before a tight election, rallied supporters on Saturday at a raucous event promoted by controversial former Toronto mayor Rob Ford. Surrounded by an estimated 1,750 cheering supporters, Harper took the stage after a rousing introduction by Ford's brother, Doug Ford, who ran for the mayor's office after Rob Ford pulled out of the campaign to fight cancer. "Make no mistake, God help this county, it will be an absolute disaster if Justin Trudeau and (Ontario Liberal Premier) Kathleen Wynne were running this country," Doug Ford said, drawing boos with his reference to Harper's chief rival and campaign frontrunner, Liberal leader Justin Trudeau.
Grateful Dead co-founder Phil Lesh reveals bladder cancer diagnosis
18 October 2015, 12:02:53 AM By Alex Dobuzinskis LOS ANGELES (Reuters) - Rock musician Phil Lesh, a founding member of influential band the Grateful Dead, has been diagnosed with non-aggressive bladder cancer and has canceled a pair of October concerts, he said in a statement late on Friday. Lesh, who plays with the band Phil Lesh & Friends, in a statement on the website of his San Rafael, California-based music venue Terrapin Crossroads, said he received the diagnosis early this month and has since received treatment at the Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Arizona. "I am very fortunate to have the pathology reports show that the tumors are all non-aggressive, and that there is no indication that they have spread," Lesh said in the statement.
Kids with cancer to gather in DC for candlelight vigil
17 October 2015, 08:19:04 PM
WASHINGTON (AP) — Hundreds will gather in Washington for a candlelight vigil to remember children who have died from cancer after a previously scheduled event was shut down by the Secret Service.
Leader behind Vermont aid-in-dying law uses it, ends life
17 October 2015, 01:04:28 AM
MONTPELIER, Vt. (AP) — Richard "Dick" Walters, a leader in the effort to get the state to pass aid-in-dying legislation, used the rules established under the law to end his own life on Friday. He was 90 years old and had been battling cancer.
I want to win World Cup for dead friend: Ashley-Cooper
16 October 2015, 06:54:49 PM Australia great Adam Ashley-Cooper is on a personal mission to win the World Cup for his close friend Guy Grinham who died in England this week of cancer. A visibly moved Ashley-Cooper -- who on Sunday will become the third most capped Wallaby of all time in the quarter-final against Scotland when he wins his 112th cap -- visited his friend and his family in his box at Twickenham after the epic 15-6 win over Wales last Saturday. Ashley-Cooper said it had been "really special".
Norwegian mass killer Breivik to sue to end prison isolation
16 October 2015, 03:05:54 PM By Gwladys Fouche and Terje Solsvik OSLO (Reuters) - Convicted Norwegian mass murderer Anders Behring Breivik will sue to end his isolation in prison, arguing that such strict conditions violate his human rights, his lawyer said on Friday. Breivik, who killed 77 people in a bomb attack and shooting spree, has been kept in solitary confinement since his arrest in 2011. Only prison staff, his lawyers and his mother, who died of cancer in 2013, have visited him in at least two prisons where he has been held.
Fiance Can't Get His Arms Around Habit Of Cuddling
16 October 2015, 07:09:07 AM
DEAR ABBY: I'm on the verge of 30, and my fiance has a huge issue with the fact that I still cuddle with my mom. From what he says, his family isn't wild about it, either.Mom has suffered a great deal of loss in her life. She has lost all of her immediate family (aside from her kids) to cancer. We were all caretakers for these family members, doing in-home hospice, and we have formed a unique bond.My fiance has never even been to a funeral, so it's hard for me to explain this to him. Mom was born in a country in Europe where hugging and lots of affection are natural. ...
Apple sets ResearchKit to work on cures for autism, epilepsy, and melanoma
16 October 2015, 12:19:07 AM Apple updated its ResearchKit studies to include three new illnesses: autism, epilepsy, and melanoma. The new initiatives come on top of dozens of studies that Apple and its partners have launched into a variety of illnesses, diseases, and mental conditions. More than 50 researchers are actively taking part in the open-source project, according to Apple. The studies provide a new way for more people to be involved in medical research. At its September event, Apple said the early response to the program has been “overwhelming.” Now, the company looks to replicate that success with new studies. Related: Apple may soon collect your DNA as part of a new ResearchKit program The first, comes from Duke University and Peking University in China. The two universities launched the Autism & Beyond app as a way to track autism in a child’s early life. The program uses emotion detection algorithms, monitoring a child’s reaction to videos using the front-facing camera. It may be able to track the early development of autism based on a child’s reactions (or non-reactions) to visual media. Additionally, Johns Hopkins University developed an app called EpiWatch for the Apple Watch, which gives epilepsy victims a one-touch way to contact a family member and document the events of the seizure. The app tracks medication intake, seizure duration, and other factors. Users will be able to share their results with others. The last new study comes from the Oregon Health & Science University, which is interested in discovering whether early signs of mole growth and melanoma (skin cancer) can be spotted with the iPhone camera. Users can send photo updates to medical professionals, and get feedback directly on their phones instead of having to go into a doctor’s office. Some projects have already seen an overload of data, thanks to the generous donations from a few of the 600 million iPhone users out there. Related: Apple vs. Asthma: How ResearchKit is ‘unshackling science’ Apple plans to add new modules, active tasks, and custom surveys to ResearchKit in the upcoming weeks. One of these new modules, the Initial Active Task, can measure motor activities, fitness, cognition, and voice, which should help a variety of medical studies. ResearchKit is still bogged down by a lack of supported countries. Only seven of the 180+ countries in which the iPhone is available support the open-source platform. Apple has not said when ResearchKit will be available in more countries.
Bristol-Myers, Five Prime expand work on cancer, other drugs
15 October 2015, 10:05:31 PM
TRENTON, N.J. (AP) — Drugmaker Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. is expanding its collaboration with Five Prime Therapeutics Inc., which could receive more than $1.75 billion if they succeed in turning Five Prime's antibody-based drug candidates into approved medicines for cancer and immune-system disorders.
More evidence poor cancer patients don’t join clinical trials
15 October 2015, 10:05:01 PM
By Lisa Rapaport (Reuters Health) - Low-income cancer patients are much less likely to participate in clinical trials than their more affluent peers, a U.S. study confirms. The disparity was even more stark for patients with household income below $20,000, who were 75 percent less likely to join cancer studies than the wealthier people in the study. “Low-income patients are likely more sensitive about how to pay for clinical trial treatment, including direct costs like co-pays and co-insurance, or indirect or hidden costs such as taking time off work for extra clinic visits,” said lead study author Joseph Unger, a biostatistician at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle.
U.S. lawsuits build against Monsanto over alleged Roundup cancer link
15 October 2015, 08:37:06 PM Personal injury law firms around the United States are lining up plaintiffs for what they say could be "mass tort" actions against agrichemical giant Monsanto Co that claim the company's Roundup herbicide has caused cancer in farm workers and others exposed to the chemical. The latest lawsuit was filed Wednesday in Delaware Superior Court by three law firms representing three plaintiffs. The lawsuit is similar to others filed last month in New York and California accusing Monsanto of long knowing that the main ingredient in Roundup, glyphosate, was hazardous to human health.
Money for Mammograms: Are Screening Incentives Helpful or Harmful?
15 October 2015, 07:41:41 PM
Once upon a time, women were encouraged to get mammograms to prevent breast cancer -- and that was essentially that. Today, debate swirls over the potential for breast cancer screening to lead to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Now, amid the combustive, and sometimes confusing, back and forth, experts have begun debating another common practice: when health plans offer women financial incentives to get mammograms.
Living With a BRCA1 Mutation: One Mom's Story
15 October 2015, 03:59:21 PM
Many people encounter cancer at some point in their lives, either head-on or friend-of-a-friend style, but then there are those of us who live with cancer on our shoulders, an intruder who came much too early for our grandmothers, aunts, mothers and sisters and never left. Nearly three decades later, in the wake of the discovery of mutations in the BRCA genes, my father's sister received a diagnosis of ovarian cancer.
Croatia legalizes use of medical marijuana
15 October 2015, 03:49:18 PM ZAGREB, Croatia (AP) — Croatia has legalized the use of marijuana for medical purposes for patients with illnesses such as cancer, multiple sclerosis or AIDS.
Croatia allows marijuana for medical use
15 October 2015, 01:49:20 PM Croatia allowed the sale of marijuana-derived products for medical purposes from Thursday, following a campaign sparked by the detention of a multiple sclerosis sufferer who grew the plant to ease his pain. Medicines containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the plant's main psychoactive ingredient, can now be prescribed by doctors to ease health problems associated with cancer, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy and AIDS, the regulation says. The issue came into public focus in the European Union member-state a year ago after a man in a village near Rijeka, a northern city on the Adriatic coast, was detained for growing cannabis plants in his garden.
Bristol-Myers, Five Prime enter licensing deal of up to $1.74 billion
15 October 2015, 12:02:04 PM
(Reuters) - Bristol-Myers Squibb Co said on Thursday it agreed to exclusively license and collaborate with Five Prime Therapeutics Inc to develop and commercialize Five Prime's antibody program in the treatment of cancer. Five Prime will receive $350 million upfront and potential development and regulatory milestone payments, totaling $1.74 billion, for the program which includes the drug component codenamed FPA008.
Antioxidants speed up cancer spread in mice: study
15 October 2015, 12:46:14 AM Antioxidant supplements that are supposed to boost health and slow ageing could in fact spur the spread of melanoma, the deadliest type of skin cancer, researchers said Wednesday. The findings support recent studies showing that an over-the-counter vitamin and another drug containing antioxidants can cause a jump in the number of tumours and hike their aggressiveness. In the new study, published in Nature, scientists in the United States demonstrated that human melanoma cells spread in some experiments about two months earlier in mice injected with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) than in those that were not.
NFL fines Heyward for tribute to late father
14 October 2015, 10:16:33 PM Pittsburgh Steelers defensive end Cameron Heyward said Wednesday that he was fined by the NFL for wearing eye-black tape reading "Iron Head" in tribute to his late father's cancer fight. Heyward tweeted that the league had levied the fine, which reportedly will cost him $5,787, for painting the words in white on the black paint used under his eyes during games. Players are allowed to use eye-black to reduce glare from the sun or bright stadium lights, but the NFL's uniform policy is against "personal messages".
Amfoot - League fines Heyward for tribute to late father
14 October 2015, 10:15:10 PM - Pittsburgh Steelers defensive end Cameron Heyward said Wednesday that he was fined by the NFL for wearing eye-black tape reading "Iron Head" in tribute to his late father's cancer fight. Heyward tweeted that the league had levied the fine, which reportedly will cost him $5,787, for painting the words in white on the black paint used under his eyes during games. Players are allowed to use eye-black to reduce glare from the sun or bright stadium lights, but the NFL's uniform policy is against "personal messages".
Fargo Season 2 Premiere Review: The Old Sophomore Surge
12 October 2015, 06:10:00 PM Fargo S0201: "Waiting for Dutch" There's being dragged into an awkward social space and thrust into a crowd of people you don't know (think Christmas dinner with the in-laws), and there's being flung into a party you weren't invited to that leads to one of the best nights of your life (think any number of unforgettable nights that occurred through happenstance). Fargo 's second season definitely leaned toward the latter as it jumped straight into a complicated new story and a horde of new characters—albeit in a familiar frigid setting—without ever leaving the viewer thinking they were in the wrong place or weren't welcome. And that's Fargo 's success story and why Season 2 may be even better than the fantastic first season: comfort in its technically borrowed skin. The adaptation of the Coen Brothers' Fargo has become something of its own, telling similar stories of bad crime, accidental crooks, and isolated expanses with the patience and nuanced development that only a television series can deliver, and it's packed in a down coat full of confidence and mastery. And violence, glorious, grounded in reality, squeamish, brutal violence. Even when you're confused about why Michael Hogan's Otto Gerhardt is having a stroke before you even know his name, creator Noah Hawley's writing makes sure you damn well care from plenty of angles: whatever (bad) business they're involved in will be in trouble, his sons—already jockeying for prime seating around the table—will fight for his spot atop the family and business, and his wife will have to deal with a whole bunch of shit. It's all laid out without mood-crushing exposition, letting the audience catch up as part of the fun. Fargo , with its preference of showing and not telling, is instantly gripping on account of its ability to immediately form characters and settings from just a few frames of film, character actions, and camera framing. (Bad example, but compare that to something like Heroes , which hasn't done anything with its massive ensemble of characters after four hours.) Season 2 launched backward to 1979, to a young Lou Solverson (Patrick Wilson in Season 2, Keith Carradine in Season 1) investigating the previously on-screen crime of a triple homicide at an off-ramp diner. The bloodbath itself was classic Fargo , an orgy of violence choreographed like ballet with comedic undertones, an impeccable balance of harshness and hilarity as a thug's intimidation plan went very, very wrong. The result of this mess was Fargo 's other source of fuel: desperation. It was there in Season 1's Lester Nygaard after his somewhat accidental murder of his wife, and it's here in Kirsten Dunst's Peggy Bloomquist, who ended the fantastic diner massacre by slamming her car into Rye Gerhardt (Kieran Culkin), the dim-witted try-hard son of Otto and a member of Sioux Falls' Gerhardt crime syndicate. And there you have Page 1 of a complex story laid out for you in a compelling yet uncomplicated way. But there's so much more sprinkled on here. Brad Garrett's Joe Bulo was giving a '70s PowerPoint presentation on the revelations of the Gerhardt's sudden weakness after Otto's stroke and proposing a hostile takeover (in mob terms, total annihilation) of the crime family to his shadowy boss. Peggy's husband Ed (Jesse Plemons, helping another blonde through murder in a second season of a great show) is stuck plotting with his hitting-and-running wife after murdering a man she almost killed. Lou's wife Betsy (Cristin Milioti), a sassy makeover of a Good Housekeeping wife, is battling cancer and caring for young Molly. And Rye, before becoming splatter on Peggy's windshield, saw what may have been a frickin' unidentified flying object. Season 1 had its share of colorful characters that weren't as relevant as others, like Glenn Howerton's Don or Keegan-Michael Key & Jordan Peele's special agents, but "Waiting for Dutch" already made sure all of its characters felt more essential to the main story than they did in Season 1. And that's fair because Season 1 was more the conflict between a man (Lester) and an another man (Lorne Malvo), and Season 2 already feels like it's more about an incident (whatever "massacre" happens that Lou referenced in Season 1) and the people—both accidental and intended—involved in it. This likely will make Fargo more sustainable and consistent in Season 2 as all these moving parts and threats build and feed into the same ultimate violent moment, with plenty of practice dropping bodies along the way. Season 1 was a ton of fun but did ramble a bit out of bounds or at least along the sidelines at times, like with Malvo's blackmail of Milos or the roundabout connection of Hess to Lester and its means of unifying Lester and Malvo. But all the bloacks that were put in place in "Waiting for Dutch" have more direct lines to each other, and my mind is already doing backflips waiting for them to intertwine. There are lots of great premieres, but not many generated the kind of excitement for the rest of the season that "Waiting for Dutch" did. It's early, but there's no reason to shush what I said during Season 1: that Fargo deserves consideration as one of TV's best. NOTES, EH – What an amazing aesthetic choice to film Season 2 in a totally retro way. Not only does it give the season character, it entrenches it in a time and place. – "Cool" shows are hard to come by these days, but Fargo is most certainly one of the few that can undeniably pull cool off. – Anyway we can get a do-over and get Rye back in the show? Culkin was fantastic as the bumbling cretin. – The series' trademark "Wrench and Numbers" drum-heavy theme gets an update for Season 2 and it might be better than the original. – The little details, like characters wanting to sit in their chairs (Ed in his kitchen, Bear around the Gerhardt table), go long ways towards defining characters. Here, Ed wanted his routine unchanged and didn't want things shaken up, and Bear had obvious aspirations to move up. – "'Oh dear me,' ejaculated Ms. Pepper," said one of the oddest children's books I've ever heard. – "His wife Floyd is tough, but, you know, a girl."
How to Talk to Your Child About Breast Cancer
13 October 2015, 07:00:21 PM
When Maimah Karmo was diagnosed with stage 2 breast cancer at 32, her family and friends urged her not to tell her 3-year-old daughter, Noelle. Karmo, 42, who's been cancer-free for 10 years, has dedicated her life to helping other women affected by breast cancer.
Cancer survivors often have poor diets
13 October 2015, 04:21:22 PM
By Lisa Rapaport (Reuters Health) - Cancer survivors may be less likely to follow a healthy diet than other people, particularly where leafy greens and whole grains are concerned, a U.S. study suggests. Researchers analyzed the diets of about 1,500 cancer survivors and 3,000 people without any history of tumors, ranking them based on how well they followed U.S. dietary recommendations. Neither group ate very well, but the cancer survivors generally had less nutritious habits than the other people in the study, researchers report in the journal Cancer.
American Nobel laureate Richard Heck is buried in Manila
13 October 2015, 09:53:46 AM
MANILA, Philippines (AP) — American Nobel laureate for chemistry Richard Heck, who designed a method of building complex molecules that has helped fight cancer, protect crops and make electronic devices, was buried Tuesday in a metropolitan Manila cemetery beside the tomb of his Filipino wife. He was 84.
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survival rates for breast cancer vary
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in fact be a
tumor. Phyllodes tumors are formed
within the stroma (connective tissue) of
the breast and contain glandular as well
as stromal tissue. Phyllodes tumors are
not staged in the usual sense; they are
classified on the basis of their
appearance under the microscope as
benign, borderline, or malignant.
breast cancer presents as
disease—that is, cancer that has spread
beyond the original organ. The symptoms
will depend on the location of
metastasis. Common sites of metastasis
include bone, liver, lung and brain.
Unexplained weight loss can occasionally
herald an occult breast cancer, as can
symptoms of fevers or chills. Bone or
joint pains can sometimes be
manifestations of metastatic breast
cancer, as can jaundice or neurological
symptoms. These symptoms are called
meaning they could be manifestations of
many other illnesses.
of breast disorders, including most
lumps, do not turn out to represent
underlying breast cancer. Fewer than 20%
of lumps, for example, are cancerous]
of the breast are more common causes of
breast disorder symptoms. Nevertheless,
the appearance of a new symptom should
be taken seriously by both patients and
their doctors, because of the
possibility of an underlying breast
cancer at almost any age.
risk factors for breast cancer are
female sex and older age.
Other potential risk factors include:
genetics, lack of childbearing or lack
of breastfeeding, higher levels of
certain hormones, certain dietary
patterns, and obesity.Recent studies
have indicated that exposure to light
pollution is a risk factor for the
development of breast cancer.
tobacco appears to increase the risk of
breast cancer, with the greater the
amount smoked and the earlier in life
that smoking began, the higher the risk.
In those who are long-term smokers, the
risk is increased 35% to 50%. A lack of
physical activity has been linked to
~10% of cases.
and breast cancer has not been clearly
determined; some studies have found
support for an association while others
have not. In the 1980s, the
increased the risk of developing breast
cancer. This hypothesis was the
subject of extensive scientific inquiry,
which concluded that neither
nor abortions are associated with a
heightened risk for breast cancer. There
may be an association between use of
and the development of
but whether oral contraceptives use may
premenopausal breast cancer is a matter
of debate. If there is indeed a link,
the absolute effect is small. In
those with mutations in the breast
cancer susceptibility genes
or who have a family history of breast
cancer, use of modern oral
contraceptives does not appear to affect
the subsequent risk of breast
There is a
relationship between diet and breast
cancer, including an increased risk with
a high fat diet, alcohol intake, and
obesity. Dietary iodine deficiency may
also play a role.
A number of chemicals have also been
a number of
Although the radiation from
is a low dose, it is estimated that
yearly screening from 40 to 80 years of
age will cause approximately 225 cases
of fatal breast cancer per million women
susceptibility may play a minor role in
most cases. Overall, however, genetics
is believed to be the primary cause of
5–10% of all cases. In those with zero,
one or two affected relatives, the risk
of breast cancer before the age of 80 is
7.8%, 13.3%, and 21.1% with a subsequent
mortality from the disease of 2.3%,
4.2%, and 7.6% respectively. In
those with a first degree relative with
the disease the risk of breast cancer
between the age of 40 and 50 is double
that of the general population.
In less than 5%
of cases, genetics plays a more
significant role by causing a
breast–ovarian cancer syndrome.
This includes those who carry the
and BRCA2 gene mutation.
These mutations account for up to 90% of
the total genetic influence with a risk
of breast cancer of 60–80% in those
affected. Other significant mutations
include: p53 (Li–Fraumeni
and STK11 (Peutz–Jeghers
CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1,
and PALB2. In 2012, researchers
said that there are four genetically
distinct types of the breast cancer and
that in each type, hallmark genetic
changes lead to many cancers.
lobular carcinoma in
in benign breast conditions such as
are correlated with an increased breast
Overview of signal
Mutations leading to loss of
apoptosis can lead to
occurs because of an interaction between
an environmental (external) factor and a
genetically susceptible host. Normal
cells divide as many times as needed and
stop. They attach to other cells and
stay in place in tissues. Cells become
cancerous when they lose their ability
to stop dividing, to attach to other
cells, to stay where they belong, and to
die at the proper time.
will commit cell suicide (apoptosis)
when they are no longer needed. Until
then, they are protected from cell
suicide by several protein clusters and
pathways. One of the protective pathways
pathway; another is the
pathway. Sometimes the genes along these
protective pathways are mutated in a way
that turns them permanently "on",
rendering the cell incapable of
committing suicide when it is no longer
needed. This is one of the steps that
causes cancer in combination with other
mutations. Normally, the
protein turns off the PI3K/AKT pathway
when the cell is ready for cell suicide.
In some breast cancers, the gene for the
PTEN protein is mutated, so the PI3K/AKT
pathway is stuck in the "on" position,
and the cancer cell does not commit
can lead to breast cancer have been
experimentally linked to estrogen
the removal of malignant cells
throughout one's life by the
signaling in the interaction between
can facilitate malignant cell growth.
adipose tissue, overexpression of leptin
leads to increased cell proliferation
In the United
States, 10 to 20 percent of patients
with breast cancer and patients with
ovarian cancer have a first- or
second-degree relative with one of these
diseases. The familial tendency to
develop these cancers is called
breast–ovarian cancer syndrome.
The best known of these, the
confer a lifetime risk of breast cancer
of between 60 and 85 percent and a
lifetime risk of ovarian cancer of
between 15 and 40 percent. Some
mutations associated with cancer, such
occur in mechanisms to correct errors in
DNA. These mutations are either
inherited or acquired after birth.
Presumably, they allow further
mutations, which allow uncontrolled
division, lack of attachment, and
metastasis to distant organs.
However there is strong evidence of
residual risk variation that goes well
beyond hereditary BRCA gene mutations
between carrier families. This is caused
by unobserved risk factors. This
implicates environmental and other
causes as triggers for breast cancers.
The inherited mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2
genes can interfere with repair of DNA
cross links and DNA double strand breaks
(known functions of the encoded protein)
These carcinogens cause DNA damage such
as DNA cross links and double strand
breaks that often require repairs by
pathways containing BRCA1 and BRCA2.
However, mutations in BRCA genes account
for only 2 to 3 percent of all breast
Levin et al. say that cancer may
not be inevitable for all carriers of
BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.
About half of hereditary breast–ovarian
cancer syndromes involve unknown genes.
Most types of
breast cancer are easy to diagnose by
microscopic analysis of a sample—or
the affected area of the breast. There
are, however, rarer types of breast
cancer that require specialized lab
The two most
commonly used screening methods,
physical examination of the breasts by a
healthcare provider and mammography, can
offer an approximate likelihood that a
lump is cancer, and may also detect some
other lesions, such as a simple
When these examinations are
inconclusive, a healthcare provider can
remove a sample of the fluid in the lump
for microscopic analysis (a procedure
known as fine needle aspiration, or fine
needle aspiration and cytology—FNAC) to
help establish the diagnosis. The needle
aspiration may be performed in a
healthcare provider's office or clinic
using local anaesthetic if required.
A finding of clear fluid makes the lump
highly unlikely to be cancerous, but
bloody fluid may be sent off for
inspection under a microscope for
cancerous cells. Together, physical
examination of the breasts, mammography,
and FNAC can be used to diagnose breast
cancer with a good degree of accuracy.
for biopsy include a
which are procedures in which a section
of the breast lump is removed; or an
in which the entire lump is removed.
Very often the results of physical
examination by a healthcare provider,
mammography, and additional tests that
may be performed in special
circumstances (such as imaging by
are sufficient to warrant excisional
biopsy as the definitive diagnostic and
primary treatment method.
are classified by several grading
systems. Each of these influences the
and can affect treatment response.
Description of a breast cancer optimally
includes all of these factors.
Histopathology. Breast cancer is
usually classified primarily by its
appearance. Most breast cancers are
derived from the epithelium lining
the ducts or lobules, and these
cancers are classified as
or lobular carcinoma. Carcinoma
in situ is growth of low grade
cancerous or precancerous cells
within a particular tissue
compartment such as the mammary duct
without invasion of the surrounding
tissue. In contrast, invasive
carcinoma does not confine
itself to the initial tissue
compares the appearance of the
breast cancer cells to the
appearance of normal breast tissue.
Normal cells in an organ like the
breast become differentiated,
meaning that they take on specific
shapes and forms that reflect their
function as part of that organ.
Cancerous cells lose that
differentiation. In cancer, the
cells that would normally line up in
an orderly way to make up the milk
ducts become disorganized. Cell
division becomes uncontrolled. Cell
nuclei become less uniform.
Pathologists describe cells as well
differentiated (low grade),
(intermediate grade), and poorly
differentiated (high grade) as the
cells progressively lose the
features seen in normal breast
cells. Poorly differentiated cancers
(the ones whose tissue is least like
normal breast tissue) have a worse
is based on the size of the tumor
(T), whether or not the tumor has
spread to the
nodes (N) in the armpits, and
whether the tumor has metastasized
(M) (i.e. spread to a more distant
part of the body). Larger size,
nodal spread, and metastasis have a
larger stage number and a worse
The main stages are:
may be employed as part of the
staging process in select cases to
look for signs of metastatic cancer.
However, in cases of breast cancer
with low risk for metastasis, the
risks associated with
outweigh the possible benefits, as
these procedures expose the patient
to a substantial amount of
potentially dangerous ionizing
status. Breast cancer cells have
on their surface and in their
Chemical messengers such as
and this causes changes in the cell.
Breast cancer cells may or may not
have three important receptors:
ER+ cancer cells (that is, cancer
cells that have estrogen receptors)
depend on estrogen for their growth,
so they can be treated with drugs to
block estrogen effects (e.g.
and generally have a better
prognosis. HER2+ breast cancers
generally have a worse prognosis
than HER2- breast cancers, but HER2+
cancer cells respond to drugs such
as the monoclonal antibody
(in combination with conventional
chemotherapy), and this has improved
the prognosis significantly. Cells
that do not have any of these three
receptor types (estrogen receptors,
progesterone receptors, or HER2) are
although they frequently do express
receptors for other hormones, such
of various types including
have compared normal cells to breast
cancer cells. The specific changes
in a particular breast cancer can be
used to classify the cancer in
several ways, and may assist in
choosing the most effective
treatment for that DNA type.
reduce their risk of breast cancer by
maintaining a healthy weight, drinking
less alcohol, being physically active
and breastfeeding their children. These
modifications might prevent 38% of
breast cancers in the US, 42% in the UK,
28% in Brazil and 20% in China.
The benefits with moderate
such as brisk walking are seen at all
age groups including postmenopausal
polyunsaturated fatty acids
appear to reduce the risk.
Removal of both
breasts before any cancer has been
diagnosed or any suspicious lump or
other lesion has appeared (a procedure
known as prophylactic bilateral
may be considered in people with BRCA1
and BRCA2 mutations, which are
associated with a substantially
heightened risk for an eventual
diagnosis of breast cancer.
(such as tamoxifen) reduce the risk of
breast cancer but increase the risk of
There is no overall change in the risk
of death. They are thus not recommended
for the prevention of breast cancer in
women at average risk but may be offered
for those at high risk.The benefit of
breast cancer reduction continues for at
least five years after stopping a course
of treatment with these medications.
screening refers to testing
otherwise-healthy women for breast
cancer in an attempt to achieve an
earlier diagnosis under the assumption
that early detection will improve
outcomes. A number of screening test
have been employed including: clinical
genetic screening, ultrasound, and
magnetic resonance imaging.
A clinical or
involves feeling the breast for
or other abnormalities. Clinical breast
exams are performed by health care
providers, while self breast exams are
performed by the person themselves.
Evidence dose not support the
effectiveness of either type of breast
exam, as by the time a lump is large
enough to be found it is likely to have
been growing for several years and thus
soon be large enough to be found without
an exam. Mammographic screening
for breast cancer uses
to examine the breast for any
uncharacteristic masses or lumps. During
a screening, the breast is compressed
and a technician takes photos from
multiple angles. A general mammogram
takes photos of the entire breast, while
a diagnostic mammogram focuses on a
specific lump or area of concern.
A number of national bodies
recommend breast cancer screening. For
the average woman, the
Services Task Force
recommends mammography every two years
in women between the ages of 50 and 74,
Council of Europe
recommends mammography between 50 and 69
with most programs using a 2 year
in Canada screening is recommended
between the ages of 50 and 74 at a
frequency of 2 to 3 years.
These task force reports point out that
in addition to unnecessary surgery and
anxiety, the risks of more frequent
mammograms include a small but
significant increase in breast cancer
induced by radiation.
(2013) states that the best quality
evidence neither demonstrates a
reduction in cancer specific, nor a
reduction in all cause mortality from
When less rigorous
trials are added to the analysis there
is a reduction in mortality due to
breast cancer of 0.05% (a decrease of 1
in 2000 deaths from breast cancer over
10 years or a relative decrease of 15%
from breast cancer).
Screening results in a 30% increase in
rates of over-diagnosis and
over-treatment, resulting in the view
that it is not clear whether mammography
screening does more good or harm.
Cochrane states that, due to recent
improvements in breast cancer treatment,
and the risks of false positives from
breast cancer screening leading to
unnecessary treatment, "it therefore no
longer seems reasonable to attend for
breast cancer screening" at any age.
Whether MRI as a screening method has
greater harms or benefits when compared
to standard mammography is not known.
of breast cancer depends on various
factors, including the
of the cancer. Increasingly aggressive
treatments are employed in accordance
with the poorer the patient's prognosis
and the higher the risk of recurrence of
the cancer following treatment.
is usually treated with
which may be followed by chemotherapy or
radiation therapy, or both. A
multidisciplinary approach is
preferable. Hormone receptor-positive
cancers are often treated with
hormone-blocking therapy over courses of
several years. Monoclonal antibodies, or
other immune-modulating treatments, may
be administered in certain cases of
metastatic and other advanced stages of
involves the physical removal of the
tumor, typically along with some of the
surrounding tissue. One or more lymph
nodes may be biopsied during the
surgery; increasingly the lymph node
sampling is performed by a
sentinel lymph node
Once the tumor
has been removed, if the patient
may then be performed to improve the
aesthetic appearance of the treated
site. Alternatively, women use
to simulate a breast under clothing, or
choose a flat chest.
can be used at any time following the
after and in addition to surgery are
Chemotherapy or other types of therapy
prior to surgery are called
may reduce mortality from breast cancer.
currently three main groups of
medications used for adjuvant breast
cancer treatment: hormone-blocking
agents, chemotherapy, and monoclonal
breast cancers require estrogen to
continue growing. They can be
identified by the presence of
estrogen receptors (ER+) and
progesterone receptors (PR+) on
their surface (sometimes referred to
together as hormone receptors).
These ER+ cancers can be treated
with drugs that either block the
(Nolvadex), or alternatively block
the production of estrogen with an
(Femara). Aromatase inhibitors,
however, are only suitable for
post-menopausal patients. This is
because the active aromatase in
postmenopausal women is different
from the prevalent form in
premenopausal women, and therefore
these agents are ineffective in
inhibiting the predominant aromatase
of premenopausal women.
Chemotherapy is predominantly used
for cases of breast cancer in stages
2–4, and is particularly beneficial
in estrogen receptor-negative (ER-)
disease. The chemotherapy
medications are administered in
combinations, usually for periods of
3–6 months. One of the most common
regimens, known as "AC", combines
(Adriamycin). Sometimes a
drug, such as
(Taxotere), is added, and the regime
is then known as "CAT". Another
common treatment, which produces
equivalent results, is
(or "CMF"). Most chemotherapy
medications work by destroying
fast-growing and/or fast-replicating
cancer cells, either by causing DNA
damage upon replication or by other
mechanisms. However, the medications
also damage fast-growing normal
cells, which may cause serious side
effects. Damage to the heart muscle
is the most dangerous complication
of doxorubicin, for example.
(Herceptin), a monoclonal antibody
to HER2 (a cell receptor that is
especially active in some breast
cancer cells), has improved the
5-year disease free survival of
stage 1–3 HER2-positive breast
cancers to about 87% (overall
When stimulated by certain growth
factors, HER2 causes cellular growth
and division; in the absence of
stimulation by the growth factor,
the cell will normally stop growing.
Between 25% and 30% of breast
the HER2 gene or its protein
product, and overexpression of HER2
in breast cancer is associated with
increased disease recurrence and
worse prognosis. When trastuzumab
binds to the HER2 in breast cancer
cells that overexpress the receptor,
trastuzumab prevents growth factors
from being able to bind to and
stimulate the receptors, effectively
blocking the growth of the cancer
cells. Trastuzumab, however, is very
expensive, and its use may cause
serious side effects (approximately
2% of patients who receive it suffer
significant heart damage). Further,
trastuzumab is only effective in
patients with HER2 amplification/overexpression.
monoclonal antibodies are also being
is given after surgery to the region of
the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes,
to destroy microscopic tumor cells that
may have escaped surgery. It may also
have a beneficial effect on tumor
therapy can be delivered as
(internal radiotherapy). Conventionally
radiotherapy is given after the
operation for breast cancer. Radiation
can also be given at the time of
operation on the breast cancer-
intraoperatively. The largest randomised
trial to test this approach was the TAR-GIT-A
found that targeted intraoperative
radiotherapy was equally effective at
4-years as the usual several weeks' of
whole breast external beam radiotherapy.
Radiation can reduce the risk of
recurrence by 50–66% (1/2 – 2/3
reduction of risk) when delivered in the
correct dose and is considered essential
when breast cancer is treated by
removing only the lump (Lumpectomy or
Wide local excision).
example of advanced breast
A prognosis is
a prediction of outcome and the
probability of progression-free survival
(PFS) or disease-free survival (DFS).
These predictions are based on
experience with breast cancer patients
with similar classification. A prognosis
is an estimate, as patients with the
same classification will survive a
different amount of time, and
classifications are not always precise.
Survival is usually calculated as an
average number of months (or years) that
50% of patients survive, or the
percentage of patients that are alive
after 1, 5, 15, and 20 years. Prognosis
is important for treatment decisions
because patients with a good prognosis
are usually offered less invasive
treatments, such as lumpectomy and
radiation or hormone therapy, while
patients with poor prognosis are usually
offered more aggressive treatment, such
as more extensive mastectomy and one or
more chemotherapy drugs.
factors are reflected in the
for breast cancer
(i.e., tumor size, location, whether
disease has spread to
and other parts of the body),
recurrence of the disease, and the age
and health of the patient. The
Index is a
commonly used prognostic tool.
of the breast cancer is the most
important component of traditional
classification methods of breast cancer,
because it has a greater effect on the
prognosis than the other considerations.
Staging takes into consideration size,
local involvement, lymph node status and
whether metastatic disease is present.
The higher the stage at diagnosis, the
poorer the prognosis. The stage is
raised by the invasiveness of disease to
lymph nodes, chest wall, skin or beyond,
and the aggressiveness of the cancer
cells. The stage is lowered by the
presence of cancer-free zones and
close-to-normal cell behaviour
(grading). Size is not a factor in
staging unless the cancer is invasive.
For example, Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS)
involving the entire breast will still
be stage zero and consequently an
excellent prognosis with a 10yr disease
free survival of about 98%.
The breast cancer
assessed by comparison of the breast
cancer cells to normal breast cells. The
closer to normal the cancer cells are,
the slower their growth and the better
the prognosis. If cells are not well
differentiated, they will appear
immature, will divide more rapidly, and
will tend to spread. Well differentiated
is given a grade of 1, moderate is grade
2, while poor or undifferentiated is
given a higher grade of 3 or 4
(depending upon the scale used). The
most widely used grading system is the
Nottingham scheme; details are
provided in the
discussion of breast
The presence of
estrogen and progesterone receptors in
the cancer cell is important in guiding
treatment. Those who do not test
positive for these specific receptors
will not be able to respond to
and this can affect their chance of
survival depending upon what treatment
options remain, the exact type of the
cancer, and how advanced the disease is.
In addition to
hormone receptors, there are other cell
surface proteins that may affect
prognosis and treatment. HER2 status
directs the course of treatment.
Patients whose cancer cells are positive
for HER2 have more aggressive disease
and may be treated with the 'targeted
that targets this protein and improves
the prognosis significantly.
tend to have a poorer prognosis than
post-menopausal women due to several
factors. Their breasts are active with
their cycles, they may be nursing
infants, and may be unaware of changes
in their breasts. Therefore, younger
women are usually at a more advanced
stage when diagnosed. There may also be
biologic factors contributing to a
higher risk of disease recurrence for
younger women with breast cancer
mammographic breast density, which is a
marker of increased risk of developing
breast cancer, may not mean an increased
risk of death among breast cancer
patients, according to a 2012 report of
a study involving 9232 women by the
National Cancer Institute (NCI).
cancer in males is usually detected at
later stages outcome are typically
impact of cancer diagnosis, symptoms,
treatment, and related issues can be
severe. Most larger hospitals are
cancer support groups
which provide a supportive environment
to help patients cope and gain
perspective from cancer survivors.
Online cancer support groups are also
very beneficial to cancer patients,
especially in dealing with uncertainty
and body-image problems inherent in
Not all breast
cancer patients experience their illness
in the same manner. Factors such as age
can have a significant impact on the way
a patient copes with a breast cancer
diagnosis. Premenopausal women with
estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer
must confront the issues of early
induced by many of the chemotherapy
regimens used to treat their breast
cancer, especially those that use
hormones to counteract ovarian function
On the other
hand, a small 2007 study conducted by
researchers at the College of Public
Health of the University of Georgia
suggested a need for greater attention
to promoting functioning and
psychological well-being among older
cancer survivors, even when they may not
have obvious cancer-related medical
complications. The study found
that older breast cancer survivors
showed multiple indications of
decrements in their health-related
quality of life, and lower psychosocial
well-being than a comparison group.
Survivors reported no more depressive
symptoms or anxious mood than the
comparison group, however, they did
score lower in measures of positive
psychosocial well-being, and reported
more depressed mood and days affected by
fatigue. As the incidence of breast
cancer in women over 50 rises and
survival rates increase, breast cancer
is increasingly becoming a geriatric
issue that warrants both further
research and the expansion of
specialized cancer support services
tailored for specific age groups.
Index is a
useful tool in assessing the prognosis
- Stage 1
cancers (and DCIS) have an excellent
prognosis and are generally treated
with lumpectomy and sometimes
radiation.HER2+ cancers should be
treated with the
Chemotherapy is uncommon for other
types of stage 1 cancers.
- Stage 2
and 3 cancers with a progressively
poorer prognosis and greater risk of
recurrence are generally treated
with surgery (lumpectomy or
mastectomy with or without lymph
node removal), chemotherapy (plus
for HER2+ cancers) and sometimes
radiation (particularly following
large cancers, multiple positive
nodes or lumpectomy).
- Stage 4,
metastatic cancer, (i.e. spread to
distant sites) has poor prognosis
and is managed by various
combination of all treatments from
surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and
targeted therapies. 10-year survival
rate is 5% without treatment and 10%
with optimal treatment.
death from breast cancer per
100,000 inhabitants in 2004.
breast cancer is the most common
invasive cancer in women. (The most
common form of cancer is non-invasive
non-invasive cancers are generally
easily cured, cause very few deaths, and
are routinely excluded from cancer
statistics.) Breast cancer comprises
22.9% of invasive cancers in women
and 16% of all female cancers.
In 2008, breast
cancer caused 458,503 deaths worldwide
(13.7% of cancer deaths in women and
6.0% of all cancer deaths for men and
the second most common cause of
cancer-related death in women, caused
12.8% of cancer deaths in women (18.2%
of all cancer deaths for men and women
of breast cancer varies greatly around
the world: it is lowest in
less-developed countries and greatest in
the more-developed countries. In the
twelve world regions, the annual
per 100,000 women are as follows: in
Eastern Asia, 18; South Central Asia,
22; sub-Saharan Africa, 22;
South-Eastern Asia, 26; North Africa and
Western Asia, 28; South and Central
America, 42; Eastern Europe, 49;
Southern Europe, 56; Northern Europe,
73; Oceania, 74; Western Europe, 78; and
in North America, 90.
The number of
cases worldwide has significantly
increased since the 1970s, a phenomenon
partly attributed to the modern
cancer is strongly related to age with
only 5% of all breast cancers occurring
in women under 40 years old.
cancer surgery in 18th
Because of its
visibility, breast cancer was the form
of cancer most often described in
Because autopsies were
rare, cancers of the internal organs
were essentially invisible to ancient
medicine. Breast cancer, however, could
be felt through the skin, and in its
advanced state often developed into
the tumor would become
(die from the inside, causing the tumor
to appear to break up) and
through the skin, weeping fetid, dark
description of cancer was discovered in
Egypt and dates back to approximately
1600 BC. The
Edwin Smith Papyrus
describes 8 cases of tumors or ulcers of
the breast that were treated by
The writing says about the disease,
"There is no treatment."
For centuries, physicians described
similar cases in their practices, with
the same conclusion. Ancient medicine,
from the time of the Greeks through the
17th century, was based on
and thus believed that breast cancer was
generally caused by imbalances in the
fundamental fluids that controlled the
body, especially an excess of
often saw it as
In the 18th century, a wide
variety of medical explanations were
proposed, including a lack of sexual
activity, too much sexual activity,
physical injuries to the breast, curdled
breast milk, and various forms of
lymphatic blockages, either internal or
due to restrictive clothing. In
the 19th century, the Scottish surgeon
John Rodman said that fear of cancer
caused cancer, and that this anxiety,
learned by example from the mother,
accounted for breast cancer's tendency
to run in families.
cancer was known in ancient times, it
was uncommon until the 19th century,
when improvements in sanitation and
control of deadly
resulted in dramatic increases in
lifespan. Previously, most women had
died too young to have developed breast
cancer. Additionally, early and frequent
childbearing and breastfeeding probably
reduced the rate of breast cancer
development in those women who did
survive to middle age. Because ancient
medicine believed that the cause was
systemic, rather than local, and because
surgery carried a high mortality rate,
the preferred treatments tended to be
pharmacological rather than surgical.
Herbal and mineral preparations,
especially involving the poison
were relatively common.
breast cancer was performed at least as
early as AD 548, when it was proposed by
the court physician
Aetios of Amida
It was not until doctors achieved
greater understanding of the circulatory
system in the 17th century that they
could link breast cancer's spread to the
in the armpit. The French surgeon
Jean Louis Petit
(1674–1750) and later the Scottish
(1749–1806) were the first to remove the
lymph nodes, breast tissue, and
underlying chest muscle.
successful work was carried on by
who started performing
in 1882, helped greatly by advances in
general surgical technology, such as
The Halsted radical mastectomy often
involved removing both breasts,
associated lymph nodes, and the
underlying chest muscles. This often led
to long-term pain and disability, but
was seen as necessary in order to
prevent the cancer from recurring.
Before the advent of the
Halsted radical mastectomy, 20-year
survival rates were only 10%; Halsted's
surgery raised that rate to 50%.
Extending Halsted's work,
promoted superradical mastectomies,
taking even more tissue, until 1963,
when the ten-year survival rates proved
equal to the less-damaging radical
mastectomies remained the standard of
care in America until the 1970s, but in
Europe, breast-sparing procedures, often
followed radiation therapy, were
generally adopted in the 1950s.
One reason for this striking difference
in approach may be the structure of the
medical professions: European surgeons,
descended from the
were held in less esteem than
in America, the surgeon was the king of
the medical profession.
Additionally, there were far more
European women surgeons: Less than one
percent of American surgical oncologists
were female, but some European breast
cancer wards boasted a medical staff
that was half female.
insurance companies also paid surgeons
more to perform radical mastectomies
than they did to perform more intricate
staging systems were developed in the
1920s and 1930s.
1970s, a new understanding of
led to perceiving cancer as a systemic
illness as well as a localized one, and
more sparing procedures were developed
that proved equally effective. Modern
World War II.
(1737–1804) realized the first
experimental transmission of cancer by
injecting extracts of breast cancer into
who died of breast cancer include
Anne of Austria,
the mother of Louis XIV of France;
mother of George, and
study on breast cancer epidemiology was
who published a comparative study in
1926 of 500 breast cancer cases and 500
control patients of the same background
and lifestyle for the British Ministry
In the 1980s
and 1990s, thousands of women who had
successfully completed standard
treatment then demanded and received
thinking this would lead to better
long-term survival. However, it proved
completely ineffective, and 15–20% of
women died because of the brutal
reports from the
Nurses' Health Study
and the 2002 conclusions of the
trial conclusively proved that
significantly increased the incidence of
Society and culture
Before the 20th
century, breast cancer was feared and
discussed in hushed tones, as if it were
shameful. As little could be safely done
with primitive surgical techniques,
women tended to suffer silently rather
than seeking care. When surgery
advanced, and long-term survival rates
improved, women began
of the disease and the possibility of
successful treatment. The "Women's Field
Army", run by the American Society for
the Control of Cancer (later the
during the 1930s and 1940s was one of
the first organized campaigns. In 1952,
the first peer-to-peer
called "Reach to Recovery", began
providing post-mastectomy, in-hospital
visits from women who had survived
of the 1980s and 1990s developed out of
and women's health movement of the 20th
This series of political
and educational campaigns, partly
inspired by the politically and socially
awareness campaigns, resulted in the
widespread acceptance of second opinions
before surgery, less invasive surgical
procedures, support groups, and other
advances in patient care.
is a symbol to show support
for breast cancer awareness
is the most prominent symbol of breast
cancer awareness. Pink ribbons, which
can be made inexpensively, are sometimes
sold as fundraisers, much like
They may be worn to honor those who have
been diagnosed with breast cancer, or to
identify products that the manufacturer
would like to sell to consumers that are
interested in breast cancer—usually
white, middle-aged, middle-class and
upper-class, educated women.
The pink ribbon
is associated with individual
generosity, faith in scientific
progress, and a "can-do" attitude. It
encourages consumers to focus on the
emotionally appealing ultimate vision of
a cure for breast cancer, rather than on
the fraught path between current
knowledge and any future cures.
displaying a pink ribbon has been
criticized by the opponents of this
practice as a kind of
because it has no practical positive
effect and as
among those who wear the pink ribbon to
show good will towards women with breast
cancer, but then oppose these women's
practical goals, like
and anti-pollution legislation.
Critics say that the feel-good nature of
pink ribbons and pink consumption
distracts society from the lack of
progress on preventing and curing breast
cancer. It is also criticized for
reinforcing gender stereotypes and
women and their breasts.
Breast Cancer Action
launched the "Think Before You Pink"
campaign, and charged that companies
have co-opted the pink campaign to
promote products that encourage breast
cancer, such as high-fat Kentucky Fried
Chicken and alcohol.
Breast cancer culture
culture, or pink ribbon culture, is the
set of activities, attitudes, and values
that surround and shape breast cancer in
public. The dominant values are
selflessness, cheerfulness, unity, and
optimism. Appearing to have suffered
bravely is the passport into the
The woman with
breast cancer is given a cultural
template that constrains her emotional
and social responses into a socially
acceptable discourse: She is to use the
emotional trauma of being diagnosed with
breast cancer and the suffering of
extended treatment to transform herself
into a stronger, happier and more
sensitive person who is grateful for the
opportunity to become a better person.
Breast cancer therapy becomes a
rite of passage
rather than a disease.
To fit into this mold,
the woman with breast cancer needs to
normalize and feminize her appearance,
and minimize the disruption that her
health issues cause anyone else. Anger,
sadness and negativity must be silenced.
As with most
cultural models, people who conform to
the model are given social status, in
this case as
Women who reject the model are shunned,
punished and shamed.
The culture is
criticized for treating adult women like
little girls, as evidenced by "baby"
toys such as pink
given to adult women.
purposes or goals of breast cancer
culture are to maintain breast cancer's
dominance as the preëminent women's
health issue, to promote the appearance
that society is "doing something"
effective about breast cancer, and to
sustain and expand the social,
political, and financial power of breast
other diseases or other cancers, breast
cancer receives a proportionately
greater share of resources and attention
. In 2001 MP
chairman of the
House of Commons of
the United Kingdom
all party group on cancer stated "The
treatment has been skewed by the
there is no doubt about that. Breast
cancer sufferers get better treatment in
terms of bed spaces, facilities and
doctors and nurses." Breast cancer
also receives significantly more media
coverage than other, equally prevalent
cancers, with a study by Prostate
Coalition showing 2.6 breast cancer
stories for each one covering
cancer of the
Ultimately there is a concern that
favouring sufferers of breast cancer
with disproportionate funding and
research on their behalf may well be
costing lives elsewhere.
Partly because of its relatively high
prevalence and long-term survival rates,
research is biased towards breast
cancer. Some subjects, such as
have been studied little except in women
with breast cancer.
One result of
breast cancer's high visibility is that
statistical results can sometimes be
misinterpreted, such as the claim that
one in eight women will be diagnosed
with breast cancer during their lives—a
claim that depends on the unrealistic
assumption that no woman will die of any
other disease before the age of 95. This
obscures the reality, which is that
about ten times as many women will die
than from breast cancer.
The emphasis on
breast cancer screening may be harming
women by subjecting them to unnecessary
radiation, biopsies, and surgery.
One-third of diagnosed breast cancers
might recede on their own.
Screening mammography efficiently finds
breast cancers and pre-cancers, even
while overlooking serious cancers.
According to H. Gilbert Welch of the
for Health Policy and Clinical Practice,
research on screening mammography has
taken the "brain-dead approach that says
the best test is the one that finds the
most cancers" rather than the one that
finds dangerous cancers.
during or shortly after pregnancy appear
at approximately the same rate as other
cancers in women of a similar age. As a
result, breast cancer is one of the more
common cancers found during pregnancy,
although it is still rare, because only
about 1 in 1,000 pregnant women
experience any sort of cancer.
new cancer in a pregnant woman is
difficult, in part because any symptoms
are commonly assumed to be a normal
discomfort associated with pregnancy.
As a result, cancer is typically
discovered at a somewhat later stage
than average in many pregnant or
recently pregnant women. Some imaging
procedures, such as
(magnetic resonance imaging),
with fetal shielding are considered safe
during pregnancy; some others, such as
generally the same as for non-pregnant
women. However, radiation is normally
avoided during pregnancy, especially if
the fetal dose might exceed 100 cGy. In
some cases, some or all treatments are
postponed until after birth if the
cancer is diagnosed late in the
pregnancy. Early deliveries to speed the
start of treatment are not uncommon.
Surgery is generally considered safe
during pregnancy, but some other
treatments, especially certain
chemotherapy drugs given during the
increase the risk of
(spontaneous abortions and stillbirths).
are not required and do not improve the
likelihood of the mother surviving or
treatments may interfere with the
mother's ability to breastfeed her baby
because it reduces the ability of that
breast to produce milk and increases the
Also, when chemotherapy is being given
after birth, many of the drugs pass
through breast milk to the baby, which
could harm the baby.
constantly evaluated in randomized,
controlled trials, to evaluate and
compare individual drugs, combinations
of drugs, and surgical and radiation
techniques. The latest research is
reported annually at scientific meetings
such as that of the
American Society of
San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium,
and the St. Gallen Oncology Conference
in St. Gallen, Switzerland. These
studies are reviewed by professional
societies and other organizations, and
formulated into guidelines for specific
treatment groups and risk category.
Breast cancer cell lines
part of the current knowledge on breast
carcinomas is based on
studies performed with
derived from breast cancers. These
provide an unlimited source of
homogenous self-replicating material,
free of contaminating
cells, and often easily cultured in
The first breast cancer cell line
described, BT-20, was established in
1958. Since then, and despite sustained
work in this area, the number of
permanent lines obtained has been
strikingly low (about 100). Indeed,
attempts to culture breast cancer cell
lines from primary tumors have been
largely unsuccessful. This poor
efficiency was often due to technical
difficulties associated with the
extraction of viable tumor cells from
their surrounding stroma. Most of the
available breast cancer cell lines
issued from metastatic tumors, mainly
Effusions provided generally large
numbers of dissociated, viable tumor
cells with little or no contamination by
and other tumor stroma cells. Many of
the currently used BCC lines were
established in the late 1970s. A very
few of them, namely
T-47D, and MDA-MB-231, account for more
than two-thirds of all abstracts
reporting studies on mentioned breast
cancer cell lines, as concluded from a
transcription factors are implicated in
breast cancer, more specifically in the
process of cell motility at the basis of
metastasis formation. Indeed NFAT1
(NFATC2) and NFAT5 are pro-invasive and
pro-migratory in breast carcinoma and
NFAT3 (NFATc4) is an inhibitor of cell
motility. NFAT1 regulates the expression
of the TWEAKR and its ligand TWEAK with
the Lipocalin 2 to increase breast
cancer cell invasion and NFAT3
inhibits Lipocalin 2 expression to blunt
the cell invasion.
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