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On This Day

 

Expectations

 of the

 Antichrist

 

Dr. Chuck Missler and Ron Matsen

Price R 499.00

There are many diverse anticipations concerning the Coming World Leader, commonly referred to as “The Antichrist.” This study will explore the Biblical descriptions with the specific expectations of the globalists, Islam, the Vatican, Freemasonry, and others.
• Will he be a Nephilim?
• Why is the Vatican openly preparing to receive an “alien” visitor?
• Will he be a resurrection of Nimrod? Is his DNA a factor?
• What are the expectations of transhumanist technologists in this regard?
Clearly, the Bible has much more to illuminate this issue far beyond the popular conceptions; and yet the composite perspective will astonish most. Furthermore, is there a climactic cosmic deception being prepared that, if it were possible, “it would deceive the very elect”? Jesus commanded us, “Be not deceived.” But, how?
How close are these events to our current horizon?
Join Dr. Chuck Missler and Ron Matsen in an intensive summary of some of the Strategic Trends that will impact all of us.
Available in the following formats:

DVD:
•3 Discs
•6 M4A Files
•1 PDF Notes File
•Color, Fullscreen 16:9, Dolby Digital 2.0 stereo, Region  encoding ( This DVD will be viewable in other countries WITH the proper DVD player and television set.)


 

   
 

The Fulcrum of the Entire Universe

 

 

Price R 179.00

 

 

Isaiah 53 describes the astonishing personal sacrifice that is the fulcrum—the pivot—of the entire cosmic drama. However, it is the personal aspect of this passage that grips our soul.

 

The Fulcrum of the Universe. The Pivot of All History. These sound like rather fanciful labels, don’t they? We are talking about Isaiah 53, often called the “Holy of Holies of the Old Testament.” In just 12 verses, it summarizes the entire New Testament as the clarion of the Old.

 

 

 

Angels, Volume III:

The Denizens of the Metacosm

 

DVD

 

 

 

Price R 179.00

 

 

 

 

Angels, Volume III: The Denizens of the Metacosm

 

DVD

by Dr. Chuck Missler

Description

Volumes 1 & 2 of this series explored the finite limits and boundaries of our physical reality. After probing the limits of both the Macrocosm and the Microcosm, we discovered that our reality is but a shadow of larger reality, the Metacosm, a domain of extra-dimensional transfers and other paradoxical phenomena.

 

Volume 3 explores the contradictory behavior of UFOs and other demonic deceptions characteristic of the End Times. Explore these topics in more detail in either this two-hour briefing, Angels Vol 3: The Denizens of the Metacosm or our six-hour extensive study, Expectations of the Antichrist.

 

   • Are they real?

• Why do UFOs enjoy a military classification higher than our most sensitive weapons systems?

• Why are the events which occurred in Roswell New Mexico still classified after 66 years?

• Why is the Vatican openly preparing to receive an Alien Visitor?

• How should a Christian deal with the occurrences of Alien abductions?

• Jesus admonished us to “Be not deceived.” How?

• How do we prepare for the deception which, “if it were possible, would deceive the very elect”?

 

Join Dr. Chuck Missler in the Executive Briefing Room of the River Lodge, New Zealand, exploring the misinformation, (and deliberate disinformation) about the various “denizens of the Metacosm” and other insights of the invisible war unfolding on our near horizon.

 

This briefing pack contains 2 hours of teaching

 

Available in the following formats

 

DVD:

•1 Disc

•2 M4A Files

•Color, Fullscreen 16:9, Dolby Digital 2.0 stereo, Region. This DVD will be viewable in other countries WITH the proper DVD player and television set.)

   
 

 

 

DVD Price R 899.00

 

 

CD ROM SET R349.00

 

 

 

Read More...>>>

 

The Dead Sea Scroll is used in this Commentary.

 

 

Isaiah scroll discovered at Qumran

 

 

 

 

More Info    Please go direct

 

 

 
   

 

 

Keith Green - So You Wanna Go Back To Egypt (live)

 

 

7:04 Keith Green - Easter Song (live)

 

 

 

James Five: James 3:1-12 - Controlling faith. The tongue. Know a tree by its fruit.

 

Chapter 5 PPT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3rd

 
 

1481 – The largest of three earthquakes strikes the island of Rhodes and causes an estimated 30,000 casualties.

 

The 1481 Rhodes earthquake occurred at 3:00 in the morning on 3 May. It triggered a small tsunami, which caused local flooding. There were an estimated 30,000 casualties. It was the largest of a series of earthquakes that affected Rhodes, starting on 15 March 1481, continuing until January 1482.

 

 

Palace Grand Master Rhodes.jpg

 

The palace was built in the early 14th century by the Knights of Rhodes, who controlled Rhodes and some other Greek islands from 1309 to 1522, to house the Grand Master of the Order. After the island was captured by the Ottoman Empire, the palace was used as a command center and fortress.

 

1715 – A total solar eclipse was visible across northern Europe, and northern Asia, as predicted by Edmond Halley to within 4 minutes accuracy.

SE1715May03T.png

 

 

This total solar eclipse was observed in England from Cornwall in the south-west to Lincolnshire and Norfolk in the east.

This eclipse is known as Halley's Eclipse, after Edmond Halley (1656–1742) who predicted this eclipse to within 4 minutes accuracy. Halley observed the eclipse from London where the city of London enjoyed 3 minutes 33 seconds of totality. He also drew a predictive map showing the path of totality across England. The original map was about 30 km off the observed eclipse path. After the eclipse, he corrected the eclipse path, and added the path and description of the 1724 total solar eclipse.

Note: Great Britain didn't adopt the Gregorian calendar until 1752, so the date was considered 22 April 1715.

 

1830 – The Canterbury and Whitstable Railway is opened. It's the first steam hauled passenger railway to issue season tickets and include a tunnel.

 

Invicta, Canterbury, 1970s flip.jpg

 

There are a number of other claimants to the title "first railway in Britain", including the Middleton Railway, the Swansea and Mumbles Railway and the Surrey Iron Railway amongst others.

Samuel Lewis in his 'A Topographical Dictionary of England' in 1848, called it the first railway in South of England.

 

 

1849 – The May Uprising in Dresden begins – the last of the German revolutions of 1848.

 

 

1867 – The Hudson's Bay Company gives up all claims to Vancouver Island.

 

Vancouver Island contour map.png

 

1901 – The Great Fire of 1901 begins in Jacksonville, Florida.

 

 

1915 – The poem In Flanders Fields is written by Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae.

 

Upper body of a man in a soldier's uniform. He has short dark hair parted in the middle and maintains a neutral expression.

 

In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.

We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.

Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.

 

 

1960 – The Anne Frank House museum opens in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

 

AnneFrankHouseAmsterdamtheNetherlands.jpg

 

The Anne Frank House (Dutch: Anne Frank Huis) is a historic house and biographical museum dedicated to Jewish wartime diarist Anne Frank. The building is located at the Prinsengracht, close to the Westerkerk, in central Amsterdam in the Netherlands.

During World War II, Anne Frank hid from Nazi persecution with her family and four other people in hidden rooms at the rear of the 17th-century canal house, known as the Secret Annex (Dutch: Achterhuis). Anne Frank did not survive the war, but in 1947 her wartime diary was published. In 1957, the Anne Frank Foundation was established to protect the property from developers who wanted to demolish the block.

The museum opened on 3 May 1960.It preserves the hiding place, has a permanent exhibition on the life and times of Anne Frank, and has an exhibition space about all forms of persecution and discrimination. In 2013, the museum had 1.2 million visitors and was the 3rd most visited museum in the Netherlands, after the Rijksmuseum and Van Gogh Museum.

 

1999 – The southwestern portion of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma is devastated by an F5 tornado, killing forty-five people, injuring 665, and causing $1 billion in damage. The tornado is one of 66 from the 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak. This tornado also produces the highest wind speed ever recorded, measured at 301 +/- 20 mph (484 +/- 32 km/h).

 

Dszpics1.jpg

 

2003 New Hampshire's famous Old Man of the Mountain collapses

 

 

 

2nd

 
1194 – King Richard I of England gives Portsmouth its first Royal Charter.

 

 

1536 Anne Boleyn, Queen of England, is arrested and imprisoned on charges of adultery, incest, treason and witchcraft.

 

Anneboleyn2.jpg

 

 

 

1559 John Knox returns from exile to Scotland to become the leader of the nascent Scottish Reformation.

 

 

John Knox statue, Haddington.jpg

 

John Knox (c. 1514 – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish clergyman and writer who was a leader of the Protestant Reformation and is considered the founder of the Presbyterian denomination in Scotland. He is believed to have been educated at the University of St Andrews and worked as a notary-priest. Influenced by early church reformers such as George Wishart, he joined the movement to reform the Scottish church. He was caught up in the ecclesiastical and political events that involved the murder of Cardinal Beaton in 1546 and the intervention of the regent of Scotland Mary of Guise. He was taken prisoner by French forces the following year and exiled to England on his release in 1549.

 

 

 

1568 Mary, Queen of Scots, escapes from Loch Leven Castle.

Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, was Queen of Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567 and Queen consort of France from 10 July 1559 to 5 December 1560.

 

 

Mary Stuart Queen.jpgLochleven west wall.JPG

 

 

1611 – The King James Bible is published for the first time in London, England, by printer Robert Barker.

 

 

 

The King James Version (KJV), commonly known as the Authorized Version (AV) or King James Bible (KJB), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England begun in 1604 and completed in 1611. First printed by the King's Printer Robert Barker, this was the third translation into English to be approved by the English Church authorities. The first was the Great Bible commissioned in the reign of King Henry VIII (1535), and the second was the Bishops' Bible of 1568. In January 1604, King James I convened the Hampton Court Conference where a new English version was conceived in response to the perceived problems of the earlier translations as detected by the Puritans, a faction within the Church of England. The translation is considered a towering achievement in English literature, as both beautiful and scholarly.

 

1808 – Outbreak of the Peninsular War: The people of Madrid rise up in rebellion against French occupation. Francisco de Goya later memorializes this event in his painting The Second of May 1808.

 

El dos de mayo de 1808 en Madrid.jpg

 

1863 American Civil War: Stonewall Jackson is wounded by friendly fire while returning to camp after reconnoitering during the Battle of Chancellorsville. He succumbs to pneumonia eight days later.

 

 

Stonewall Jackson by Routzahn, 1862.png

 

 

1885 – The Congo Free State is established by King Léopold II of Belgium.

 

 

 

 

1889 Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia, signs a treaty of amity with Italy, giving Italy control over Eritrea.

 

Emperor Menelik II.png

 

Emperor Menelik II GCB, GCMG , baptized as Sahle Maryam (17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913), was Negus of Shewa (1866–89),  of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death. At the height of his internal power and external prestige, the process of territorial expansion and creation of the modern empire-state had been completed by 1898. Ethiopia was transformed under Nəgusä Nägäst Menelik: the major signposts of modernization were put in place. Externally, his victory over the Italian invaders had earned him great fame: following Adwa, recognition of Ethiopia’s independence by external powers was expressed in terms of diplomatic representation at the court of Menelik and delineation of Ethiopia’s boundaries with the adjacent colonies. Menelik expanded his kingdom to the south and east, expanding into Kaffa, Sidama, Wolayta and other kingdoms.

 

 

1941 – Following the coup d'état against Iraq Crown Prince 'Abd al-Ilah earlier that year, the United Kingdom launches the Anglo-Iraqi War to restore him to power.

 

 

The Anglo–Iraqi War was the British campaign against the rebel government of Rashid Ali in the Kingdom of Iraq during the Second World War. Operations lasted from 2 to 31 May 1941. The campaign resulted in the re-occupation of Iraq by British armed forces and the return to power of the ousted pro-British regent of Iraq, Prince 'Abd al-Ilah. The campaign further fuelled Iraqi nationalist resentment toward the British-supported Hashemite monarchy.

 

1945 World War II: Fall of Berlin: The Soviet Union announces the capture of Berlin and Soviet soldiers hoist their red flag over the Reichstag building.

 

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R77767, Berlin, Rotarmisten Unter den Linden.jpg

 

The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.

Starting on 12 January 1945, the Red Army breached the German front as a result of the Vistula–Oder Offensive and advanced westward as much as 40 kilometres (25 miles) a day through East Prussia, Lower Silesia, East Pomerania, and Upper Silesia, temporarily halting on a line 60 km (37 mi) east of Berlin along the Oder River.[14] When the offensive resumed, two Soviet fronts (army groups) attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. The battle within the city lasted from 20 April until the morning of 2 May.

 

 

1945 – World War II: Italian Campaign: General Heinrich von Vietinghoff signs the official instrument of surrender of all Wehrmacht forces in Italy.

 

 

Heinrich von Vietinghoff.jpg

 

1945 – World War II: The US 82nd Airborne Division liberates Wöbbelin concentration camp finding 1000 dead prisoners, most of whom starved to death.

 

 

 

1982 Falklands War: The British nuclear submarine HMS Conqueror sinks the Argentine cruiser ARA General Belgrano.

 

HMS Conqueror (S48).jpg

 

1986 The Chernobyl Disaster: The City of Chernobyl is evacuated six days after the disaster

 

Chernobyl Disaster.jpg

 

 

2008 Cyclone Nargis makes landfall in Burma killing over 138,000 people and leaving millions of people homeless.

 

 

2008 – Chaitén Volcano begins erupting in Chile, forcing the evacuation of more than 4,500 people.

 

 

2011 Osama bin Laden, the suspected mastermind behind the September 11 attacks and the FBI's most wanted man is killed by the United States special forces in Abbottabad, Pakistan.

 

 

2011 – An E. coli outbreak strikes Europe, mostly in Germany, leaving more than 30 people dead and many others sick from the bacteria outbreak.

 

Schizocyte smear 2009-12-22.JPG

 

2012 – A pastel version of The Scream, by Norwegian painter Edvard Munch, sells for $120 million in a New York City auction, setting a new world record for a work of art at auction.

 

The Scream.jpg

 

2014 Two mudslides in Badakhshan, Afghanistan, leave up to 2,500 people missing.

 

 

 

 

May 1   Mayday Warning 

 

May Day Pagan

 

 

  'International Workers' Day, also known as Labor Day, is a celebration of laborers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labor movement and occurs every year on May 1, or May Day.

 

May 1 was chosen as the date for International Workers' Day by the Socialists and Communists of the Second International to commemorate the Haymarket affair in Chicago that occurred on May 4, 1886. Some countries celebrate a Labor Day on other dates significant to them, such as the United States which celebrates Labor Day on the first Monday of September.

 

 

 

May 1

  305 Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor.

 

Diocletian delegated further on 1 March 293, appointing Galerius and Constantius as caesars, junior co-emperors. Under this 'tetrarchy', or "rule of four", each emperor would rule over a quarter-division of the empire. Diocletian secured the empire's borders and purged it of all threats to his power. He defeated the Sarmatians and Carpi during several campaigns between 285 and 299, the Alamanni in 288, and usurpers in Egypt between 297 and 298. Galerius, aided by Diocletian, campaigned successfully against Sassanid Persia, the empire's traditional enemy. In 299 he sacked their capital, Ctesiphon. Diocletian led the subsequent negotiations and achieved a lasting and favorable peace. Diocletian separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and reorganized the empire's provincial divisions, establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire. He established new administrative centers in Nicomedia, Mediolanum, Antioch, and Trier, closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome had been. Building on third-century trends towards absolutism, he styled himself an autocrat, elevating himself above the empire's masses with imposing forms of court ceremonies and architecture. Bureaucratic and military growth, constant campaigning, and construction projects increased the state's expenditures and necessitated a comprehensive tax reform. From at least 297 on, imperial taxation was standardized, made more equitable, and levied at generally higher rates.

524 – King Sigismund of Burgundy is executed at Orléans after an 8-year reign and is succeeded by his brother Godomar.

 

 

Maximian (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius Augustus; c. 250 – c. July 310) was Roman Emperor from 286 to 305. He was Caesar from 285 to 286, then Augustus from 286 to 305

He shared the latter title with his co-emperor and superior, Diocletian, whose political brain complemented Maximian's military brawn. Maximian established his residence at Trier but spent most of his time on campaign. In the late summer of 285, he suppressed rebels in Gaul known as the Bagaudae. From 285 to 288, he fought against Germanic tribes along the Rhine frontier. Together with Diocletian, he launched a scorched earth campaign deep into Alamannic territory in 288, temporarily relieving the Rhine provinces from the threat of Germanic invasion.

The man he appointed to police the Channel shores, Carausius, rebelled in 286, causing the secession of Britain and northwestern Gaul. Maximian failed to oust Carausius, and his invasion fleet was destroyed by storms in 289 or 290. Maximian's subordinate, Constantius, campaigned against Carausius' successor, Allectus, while Maximian held the Rhine frontier. The rebel leader was ousted in 296, and Maximian moved south to combat piracy near Hispania and Berber incursions in Mauretania. When these campaigns concluded in 298, he departed for Italy, where he lived in comfort until 305. At Diocletian's behest, Maximian abdicated on May 1, 305, gave the Augustan office to Constantius, and retired to southern Italy.

In late 306, Maximian took the title of Augustus again and aided his son Maxentius' rebellion in Italy. In April 307, he attempted to depose his son, but failed and fled to the court of Constantius' successor, Constantine (who was both Maximian's step-grandson and also his son-in-law), in Trier. At the Council of Carnuntum in November 308, Diocletian and his successor, Galerius, forced Maximian to renounce his imperial claim again. In early 310, Maximian attempted to seize Constantine's title while the emperor was on campaign on the Rhine. Few supported him, and he was captured by Constantine in Marseille. Maximian committed suicide in the summer of 310 on Constantine's orders. During Constantine's war with Maxentius, Maximian's image was purged from all public places. However, after Constantine ousted and killed Maxentius, Maximian's image was rehabilitated, and he was deified.

 

 

880 – The Nea Ekklesia is inaugurated in Constantinople, setting the model for all later cross-in-square Orthodox churches.

 

Emperor Basil I was the founder of the Macedonian dynasty, the most successful in Byzantine history. Basil regarded himself as a restorer of the empire, a new Justinian, and initiated a great building program in Constantinople in emulation his great predecessor. The Nea was to be Basil’s Hagia Sophia, with its very name, "New Church", implying the beginning of a new era.

 

 

 

 

1328 Wars of Scottish Independence end: By the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton the Kingdom of England recognises the Kingdom of Scotland as an independent state.

 

Robertthebruce.jpg

 

1455 Battle of Arkinholm, Royal forces end the Black Douglas hegemony in Scotland.

 

 

1576 Stefan Batory, the reigning Prince of Transylvania, marries Anna Jagiellon and they become co-rulers of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

 

 

 

Administrative division of Transylvania in the early 16th century

 

1707 – The Act of Union joins the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

 

 

Previous attempts at union

England and Scotland were separate states for several centuries before eventual union, and English attempts to take over Scotland by military force in the late 13th and early 14th centuries were ultimately unsuccessful (see the Wars of Scottish Independence). The first attempts at Union surrounded the foreseen unification of the Royal lines of Scotland and England. In pursuing the Scottish throne in the 1560s, Mary, Queen of Scots pledged herself to a peaceful union between the two kingdoms.

England and Scotland were ruled by the same king for the first time in 1603 when James VI of Scotland also became the king of England. However they remained two separate states until 1 May 1707.

 

1776 – Establishment of the Illuminati in Ingolstadt (Upper Bavaria), by Jesuit-taught Adam Weishaupt.

 

 

 

Weishaupt was initiated into the Masonic Lodge "Theodor zum guten Rath", at Munich in 1777. His project of "illumination, enlightening the understanding by the sun of reason, which will dispel the clouds of superstition and of prejudice" was an unwelcome reform. He used Freemasonry to recruit for his own quasi-masonic society, with the goal of "perfecting human nature" through re-education to achieve a communal state with nature, freed of government and organized religion. Presenting their own system as pure masonry, Weishaupt and Adolph Freiherr Knigge, who organised his ritual structure, greatly expanded the secret organisation.

 

 

The Illuminati (plural of Latin illuminatus, "enlightened") is a name given to several groups, both real and fictitious. Historically, the name refers to the Bavarian Illuminati, an Enlightenment-era secret society founded on May 1, 1776. The society's goals were to oppose superstition, obscurantism, religious influence over public life and abuses of state power. "The order of the day," they wrote in their general statutes, "is to put an end to the machinations of the purveyors of injustice, to control them without dominating them." The Illuminati—along with Freemasonry and other secret societies—were outlawed through Edict, by the Bavarian ruler, Charles Theodore, with the encouragement of the Roman Catholic Church, in 1784, 1785, 1787 and 1790. In the several years following, the group was vilified by conservative and religious critics who claimed that they continued underground and were responsible for the French Revolution.

In subsequent use, "Illuminati" refers to various organisations which claim or are purported to have links to the original Bavarian Illuminati or similar secret societies, though these links are unsubstantiated. They are often alleged to conspire to control world affairs, by masterminding events and planting agents in government and corporations, in order to gain political power and influence and to establish a New World Order. Central to some of the most widely known and elaborate conspiracy theories, the Illuminati have been depicted as lurking in the shadows and pulling the strings and levers of power in dozens of novels, movies, television shows, comics, video games and music videos.

 

1778 American Revolution: The Battle of Crooked Billet begins in Hatboro, Pennsylvania.

 

Battle of Crooked Billet Monument.jpg

 

The Battle of Crooked Billet was a battle in the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought on May 1, 1778 near the Crooked Billet Tavern (present-day Hatboro, Pennsylvania). In the skirmish action, British forces under the command of Major John Graves Simcoe launched a surprise attack against Brigadier General John Lacey and three regiments of Pennsylvania militia, who were literally caught sleeping. The British inflicted significant damage, and Lacey and his forces were forced to retreat into neighboring Bucks County.

 

1785 Kamehameha I, the king of Hawaiʻi, defeats Kalanikupule and establishes the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.

 

Kamehameha I.png

 

1786 – In Vienna, Austria, Mozart's opera The Marriage of Figaro is performed for the first time.

 

 

 

1794 War of the Pyrenees: The Battle of Boulou ends, in which French forces defeat the Spanish and regain nearly all the land they lost to Spain in 1793.

 

Bataille de Boulou.jpg

 

 

1840 – The Penny Black, the first official adhesive postage stamp, is issued in the United Kingdom.

 

Penny black.jpg

 

1846 – The few remaining Mormons left in Nauvoo, Illinois, formally dedicate the Nauvoo Temple.

 

 

1851 Queen Victoria opens the Great Exhibition in London.

 

Crystal Palace from the northeast from Dickinson's Comprehensive Pictures of the Great Exhibition of 1851. 1854.jpg

 

1866 – The Memphis Race Riots begin. In three days time, 46 blacks and two whites were killed. Reports of the atrocities influenced passage of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

 

 

1869 – The Folies Bergère opens in Paris.

 

 

1875 Alexandra Palace reopens after being burned down in a fire in 1873.

 

 

1886 – Rallies are held throughout the United States demanding the eight-hour work day, culminating in the Haymarket Affair in Chicago, in commemoration of which May 1 is celebrated as International Workers' Day in many countries.

 

HaymarketRiot-Harpers.jpg

 

 

International Workers' Day, also known as Labour Day in some places, is a celebration of labourers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labour movement, anarchists, socialists, and communists and occurs every year on May Day, 1 May, an ancient European spring holiday. The date was chosen for International Workers' Day by the Second International to commemorate the Haymarket affair, which occurred in Chicago on 4 May 1886.

Being a traditional European spring celebration, May Day is a national public holiday in many countries, but in only some of those countries is it celebrated specifically as "Labour Day" or "International Workers' Day". Some countries celebrate a Labour Day on other dates significant to them, such as the United States which celebrates Labour Day on the first Monday of September.

 

1898 Spanish-American War: The Battle of Manila Bay: The United States Navy destroys the Spanish Pacific fleet in the first battle of the war.

 

USS Olympia with Dewey at Battle of Manila bay DSCN4191 at Vermont State.jpg

 

1900 – The Scofield mine disaster kills over 200 men in Scofield, Utah in what is to date the fifth-worst mining accident in United States history.

 

 

 

1915 – The RMS Lusitania departs from New York City on her two hundred and second, and final, crossing of the North Atlantic. Six days later, the ship is torpedoed off the coast of Ireland with the loss of 1,198 lives, including 128 Americans, rousing American sentiment against Germany.

 

 

 

1925 – The All-China Federation of Trade Unions is officially founded. Today it is the largest trade union in the world, with 134 million members.

 

ACFTU logo.jpg

 

1930 – The dwarf planet Pluto is officially named.

 

Pluto animiert 200px.gif

 

Pluto (minor-planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is the largest object in the Kuiper belt, the tenth-most-massive known body directly orbiting the Sun, and the second-most-massive known dwarf planet, after Eris. Like other Kuiper belt objects, Pluto is primarily made of rock and ice, and is relatively small, about 16 the mass of the Moon and 13 its volume. It has an eccentric and highly inclined orbit that takes it from 30 to 49 AU (4.4–7.4 billion km) from the Sun. Hence Pluto periodically comes closer to the Sun than Neptune, but an orbital resonance with Neptune prevents the bodies from colliding. In 2014 it was 32.6 AU from the Sun. Light from the Sun takes about 5.5 hours to reach Pluto at its average distance (39.4 AU).

 

1931 – The Empire State Building is dedicated in New York City.

 

Empire State Building by David Shankbone crop.jpg

 

1941 World War II: German forces launch a major attack on Tobruk.

 

Tobruk or Tubruq /tɵˈbrʊk/ (Arabic: طبرق Ţubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Ţubruq, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border with Egypt. It is the capital of the Butnan District (formerly Tobruk District) and has a population of 120,000 (2011 est.).

 

 

 

 

Tobruk or Tubruq /tɵˈbrʊk/ (Arabic: طبرقŢubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Ţubruq, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border with Egypt. It is the capital of the Butnan District (formerly Tobruk District) and has a population of 120,000 (2011 est.).

 

1944 – Two hundred Communist prisoners are shot by the Germans at Kaisariani in Athens in reprisal for the killing of General Franz Krech by partisans at Molaoi.

 

 

1945 – World War II: A German newsreader officially announces that Adolf Hitler has "fallen at his command post in the Reich Chancellery fighting to the last breath against Bolshevism and for Germany". The Soviet flag is raised over the Reich Chancellery, by order of Stalin.

 

 

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-V04744, Berlin, Garten der zerstörte Reichskanzlei.jpg

 

 

 

Hitler took up residence in the Führerbunker on 16 January 1945 and it became the centre of the Nazi regime until the last week of World War II in Europe. Hitler married Eva Braun here during the last week of April 1945, shortly before they committed suicide.

 

1945 – World War II: Joseph Goebbels and his wife Magda commit suicide in the Reich Garden outside the Führerbunker. Their children are murdered by Magda by having cyanide pills inserted into their mouths.

 

 

Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1968-101-20A, Joseph Goebbels.jpg

 

At 8 pm on 1 May, Goebbels arranged for an SS dentist, Helmut Kunz, to kill his six children by injecting them with morphine and then, when they were unconscious, crushing an ampoule of cyanide in each of their mouths. According to Kunz's testimony, he gave the children morphine injections but it was Magda Goebbels and Stumpfegger, Hitler's personal doctor, who then administered the cyanide. Shortly afterward, Goebbels and his wife went up to the garden of the Chancellery, where they killed themselves. The details of their suicides are uncertain. According to one account, Joseph Goebbels shot his wife, then himself

 

1946 – The Paris Peace Conference concludes that the islands of the Dodecanese should be returned to Greece by Italy.

 

1947 Portella della Ginestra massacre against May Day celebrations in Sicily by the bandit and separatist leader Salvatore Giuliano where 11 persons are killed and 33 wounded.

 

 

1948 – The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) is established, with Kim Il-sung as leader.

1950 Guam is organized as a United States commonwealth.

 

1956 – The polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk is made available to the public.

 

 

1960 – Cold War: U-2 incident: Francis Gary Powers, in a Lockheed U-2 spyplane, is shot down over the Soviet Union, sparking a diplomatic crisis.

 

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1961 – The Prime Minister of Cuba, Fidel Castro, proclaims Cuba a socialist nation and abolishes elections.

 

 

1982 – Operation Black Buck: The Royal Air Force attacks the Argentine Air Force during Falklands War.

 

 

1987 Pope John Paul II beatifies Edith Stein, a Jewish-born Carmelite nun who was gassed in the Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz.

 

DBP 1983 1162 Edith Stein.jpg

 

1994 – Three-time Formula One world champion Ayrton Senna is killed in an accident during the San Marino Grand Prix at Imola.

 

Ayrton Senna's WilliamsF1 car veers straight into a concrete wallAyrton Senna with toy car cropped no wm.jpg

 

1995 Croatian forces launch Operation Flash during the Croatian War of Independence.

 

Operation flash map.jpg

 

2003 2003 invasion of Iraq: In what becomes known as the "Mission Accomplished" speech, on board the USS Abraham Lincoln (off the coast of California), U.S. President George W. Bush declares that "major combat operations in Iraq have ended".

 

 

2004 Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia join the European Union, celebrated at the residence of the Irish President in Dublin.

 

2011 – Barack Obama announces that Osama bin Laden, the suspected mastermind behind the September 11 attacks has been killed by United States special forces in Abbottabad, Pakistan. Due to the time difference between the United States and Pakistan, bin Laden was actually killed on May 2.

 

Osama bin Laden making a video at his compound in Pakistan-2.jpg

 

 

 

30th

 
311 – The Diocletianic Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire ends.

 

 

 

The Diocletianic Persecution (or Great Persecution) was the last and most severe persecution of Christians in the Roman empire. In 303, the Emperors Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius and Constantius issued a series of edicts rescinding the legal rights of Christians and demanding that they comply with traditional Roman religious practices. Later edicts targeted the clergy and demanded universal sacrifice, ordering all inhabitants to sacrifice to the gods. The persecution varied in intensity across the empire—weakest in Gaul and Britain, where only the first edict was applied, and strongest in the Eastern provinces. Persecutory laws were nullified by different emperors at different times, but Constantine and Licinius's Edict of Milan (313) has traditionally marked the end of the persecution.

 

1789 – On the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York City, George Washington takes the oath of office to become the first elected President of the United States.

 

1863 – A 65-man French Foreign Legion infantry patrol fights a force of nearly 2,000 Mexican soldiers to nearly the last man in Hacienda Camarón, Mexico.

 

 

1871 – The Camp Grant massacre takes place in Arizona Territory.

 

The Camp Grant massacre, on April 30, 1871, was an attack on Pinal and Aravaipa Apaches who surrendered to the United States Army at Camp Grant, Arizona, along the San Pedro River. The massacre led to a series of battles and campaigns fought between the Americans, the Apache, and their Yavapai allies, which continued into 1875, the most notable being General George Crook's Tonto Basin Campaign of 1872 and 1873.

 

 

1966 – The Church of Satan is established at the Black House in San Francisco, California.

 

 

 

 

The Black House, home of Anton LaVey and headquarters of the Church of Satan from 1966 - 1997

 

 

Anton Szandor LaVey[1] (born Howard Stanton Levey; April 11, 1930 – October 29, 1997) was an American author, occultist, and musician. He was the founder of the Church of Satan as well as the author of The Satanic Bible and the founder of LaVeyan Satanism, a synthesized system of his understanding of human nature and the insights of philosophers who advocated materialism and individualism, for which he claimed no supernatural or theistic inspiration.

 

1975 Fall of Saigon: Communist forces gain control of Saigon. The Vietnam War formally ends with the unconditional surrender of South Vietnamese president Duong Van Minh.

 

 

1980 – The Iranian Embassy Siege begins in London.

 

 

The Iranian Embassy siege took place from 30 April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in South Kensington, London. The gunmen took 26 people hostage—mostly embassy staff, but several visitors and a police officer, who had been guarding the embassy, were also held. The hostage-takers, members of an Iranian Arab group campaigning for Arab national sovereignty in the southern region of Khūzestān Province, demanded the release of Arab prisoners from jails in Khūzestān and their own safe passage out of the United Kingdom. The British government quickly resolved that safe passage would not be granted, and a siege ensued. Over the following days, police negotiators secured the release of five hostages in exchange for minor concessions, such as the broadcasting of the hostage-takers' demands on British television.

 

1993 CERN announces World Wide Web protocols will be free.

 

 

2008 – Two skeletal remains found near Yekaterinburg, Russia, are confirmed by Russian scientists to be the remains of Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia and Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna, one of his sisters.

 

 

2009 – Seven people are killed and 17 injured at a Queen's Day parade in Apeldoorn, Netherlands in an attempted assassination on Queen Beatrix.

 

 

The vehicle drove through people lining the street watching the parade, resulting in eight deaths and ten injuries. It missed the Royal Family and crashed into a monument at the side of the road. No members of the Royal Family were harmed. It was the first attack on the Dutch Royal Family in modern times.

The driver, identified as 38-year-old Dutch national Karst Roeland Tates, was attended by emergency service workers of the fire brigade and police, taken into custody and transported to the hospital for treatment.  He died the day after the incident, the seventh person to succumb to injuries suffered during the attack. A 46-year-old woman died from her injuries days later, on 8 May, bringing the total number of deaths to eight.

 

 

 

29th

 
711 Islamic conquest of Hispania: Moorish troops led by Tariq ibn-Ziyad land at Gibraltar to begin their invasion of the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus).

 

 

The Umayyad conquest of Hispania is the initial Islamic Umayyad Caliphate's conquest, between 711 and 788, of the Christian Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania, centered in the Iberian Peninsula, which was known to them under the Arabic name al-Andalus.

The conquest began with an invasion by an army that (according to traditional accounts) consisted largely of Berber Northwest Africans and Arabs, and was commanded by Tariq ibn Ziyad. They disembarked in early 711 at Gibraltar and campaigned their way northward. After the decisive Battle of Guadalete against the usurper Roderic and the support provided to the Saracens by the legitimate heirs to the throne, the initial raids became, to the surprise of the raiders themselves, territorial gains successfully conquered and retained. The Visigothic kingdom splintered into client-dominions of the Umayyads. Over the following decade, most of the Iberian Peninsula was further occupied and brought under Umayyad sovereignty.

 

1429 Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans.

 

 

The Siege of Orléans (1428–1429) marked a turning point in the Hundred Years' War between France and England. This was Joan of Arc's first major military victory and the first major French success to follow the crushing defeat at Agincourt in 1415. The outset of this siege marked the pinnacle of English power during the later stages of the war. The city held strategic and symbolic significance to both sides of the conflict. The consensus among contemporaries was that the English regent, John Plantagenet, would succeed in realizing Henry V's dream of conquering all of France if Orléans fell. For half a year the English appeared to be winning, but the siege collapsed nine days after Joan's arrival.

 

1483 Gran Canaria, the main island of the Canary Islands is conquered by the Kingdom of Castile.

 

 

1903 – A 30 million cubic-metre landslide kills 70 in Frank, North-West Territories, Canada.

 

 

The Frank Slide was a rockslide that buried part of the mining town of Frank, Northwest Territories, Canada, on the morning of April 29, 1903. It occurred at 4:10 am, when over 82 million tonnes (90 million tons) of limestone rock slid down Turtle Mountain within 100 seconds, obliterating the eastern edge of Frank, the Canadian Pacific Railway line and the coal mine. It was one of the largest landslides in Canadian history and remains the deadliest, as between 70 and 90 of the town's residents were killed, most of whom remain buried in the rubble

 

1916 World War I: The British 6th Indian Division surrenders to Ottoman Forces at the Siege of Kut in one of the largest surrenders of British forces up to that point.

 

 

The siege of Kut Al Amara (7 December 1915 – 29 April 1916), also known as the First Battle of Kut, was the besieging of an 8,000 strong British-Indian garrison in the town of Kut, 100 miles south of Baghdad, by the Ottoman Army. In 1915, its population was around 6,500. Following the surrender of the garrison on 29 April 1916, the survivors of the siege were marched to imprisonment at Aleppo.

 

1944 World War II: British agent Nancy Wake, a leading figure in the French Resistance and the Gestapo's most wanted person, parachutes back into France to become a liaison between London and the local maquis group.

 

 

Nancy Grace Augusta Wake AC, GM (30 August 1912 – 7 August 2011) served as a British agent during the later part of World War II. She became a leading figure in the maquis groups of the French Resistance and was one of the Allies' most decorated servicewomen of the war. After the fall of France in 1940, she became a courier for the French Resistance and later joined the escape network of Captain Ian Garrow. By 1943, Wake was the Gestapo's most wanted person, with a 5 million-franc price on her head.

After reaching Britain, Wake joined the Special Operations Executive. On the night of 29/30 April 1944, Wake was parachuted into the Auvergne, becoming a liaison between London and the local maquis group headed by Captain Henri Tardivat in the Forest of Tronçais. From April 1944 until the liberation of France, her 7,000+ maquisards fought 22,000 SS soldiers, causing 1,400 casualties, while suffering only 100 themselves.

 

Wake died on Sunday evening 7 August 2011, aged 98, at Kingston Hospital after being admitted with a chest infection. She had requested that her ashes be scattered at Montluçon in central France. Her ashes were scattered near the village of Verneix, which is near Montlucon, on 11 March 2013.

 

1945 – World War II: The German army in Italy unconditionally surrenders to the Allies.

 

1945 – World War II: Start of Operation Manna.

 

 

 

Operations Manna and Chowhound took place from 29 April to the end of World War II in Europe on 8 May 1945. These two operations–Manna by the Royal Air Force (29 April – 7 May) and Chowhound by the U.S. Air Force (1–8 May)—dropped a total of over 11,000 tons of food into the still-unliberated western part of the Netherlands, with the acquiescence of the occupying German forces, to help feed civilians who were in danger of starvation in the Dutch famine. When this proved insufficient, Operation Faust was launched as well. On 2 May, 200 Allied trucks began delivering food to the city of Rhenen, behind German lines.

 

1945 – World War II – Fuehrerbunker: Adolf Hitler marries his longtime partner Eva Braun in a Berlin bunker and designates Admiral Karl Dönitz as his successor. Both Hitler and Braun commit suicide the following day.

 

 

 

July 1947 photo of the rear entrance to the Führerbunker in the garden of the Reich Chancellery. Hitler and Eva Braun were cremated in a shell hole in front of the emergency exit at left; the cone-shaped structure in the centre served as the exhaust, and as bomb shelter for the guards.

 

Adolf Hitler committed suicide by gunshot on 30 April 1945 in his Führerbunker in Berlin. His wife Eva (née Braun) committed suicide with him by ingesting cyanide. That afternoon, in accordance with Hitler's prior instructions, their remains were carried up the stairs through the bunker's emergency exit, doused in petrol, and set alight in the Reich Chancellery garden outside the bunker.  Records in the Soviet archives show that their burnt remains were recovered and interred in successive locations until 1970, when they were again exhumed, cremated, and the ashes scattered.

Accounts differ as to the cause of death; one states that he died by poison only and another that he died by a self-inflicted gunshot while biting down on a cyanide capsule. Contemporary historians have rejected these accounts as being either Soviet propaganda or an attempted compromise in order to reconcile the different conclusions. One eye-witness recorded that the body showed signs of having been shot through the mouth, but this has been proven unlikely. There is also controversy regarding the authenticity of skull and jaw fragments which were recovered. In 2009, DNA tests were performed on a skull Soviet officials had long believed to be Hitler's. According to the American researchers, the tests revealed that the skull was actually that of a woman less than 40 years old. The jaw fragments which had been recovered were not tested by the American researchers.

 

 

1945 – The Dachau concentration camp is liberated by United States troops.

 

Dachau concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau, IPA: [ˈdaxaʊ]) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory near the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (9.9 mi) northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany. Opened in 1933 by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, and eventually, the imprisonment of Jews, ordinary German and Austrian criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries which Germany occupied or invaded. It was finally liberated in 1945.

 

Prisoners lived in constant fear of brutal treatment and terror detention including standing cells, floggings, the so-called tree or pole hanging, and standing at attention for extremely long periods. There were 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, and thousands that are undocumented.

 

 

 

1946 – Father Divine, a controversial religious leader who claims to be God, marries the much-younger Edna Rose Ritchings, a celebrated anniversary in the International Peace Mission movement.

 

 

1968 – The controversial musical Hair, a product of the hippie counter-culture and sexual revolution of the 1960s, opens at the Biltmore Theatre on Broadway, with its song becoming anthems of the anti-Vietnam War movement.

 

 

1975 – Vietnam War: Operation Frequent Wind: The U.S. begins to evacuate U.S. citizens from Saigon prior to an expected North Vietnamese takeover. U.S. involvement in the war comes to an end.

 

 

1986 – The Chernobyl Disaster: American and European Spy Satellites capture the ruins of the 4th Reactor at the Chernobyl Power Plant

 

 

1991 – A cyclone strikes the Chittagong district of southeastern Bangladesh with winds of around 155 miles per hour (249 km/h), killing at least 138,000 people and leaving as many as 10 million homeless.

 

 

Bodies of people drowned by the cyclone on Sandwip

 

 

At least 138,000 people were killed by the storm, with around 25000 dead in Chittagong, 40000 dead in Banshkali and 8000 dead in Kutubdia . Most deaths were from drowning, with the highest mortality among children and the elderly. Although cyclone shelters had been built after the 1970 Bhola cyclone, many had just a few hours of warning and did not know where to go for shelter. Others who knew about the storm refused to evacuate because they did not believe the storm would be as bad as forecast. Even so it is estimated over 2 million people did evacuate from the most dangerous areas, possibly mitigating the disaster substantially.

 

1992 Los Angeles riots: Riots in Los Angeles, California, following the acquittal of police officers charged with excessive force in the beating of Rodney King. Over the next three days 53 people are killed and hundreds of buildings are destroyed.

 

 

 

2005 Syria completes withdrawal from Lebanon, ending 29 years of occupation.

 

 

On 14 February 2005, former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri was assassinated in a car bomb explosion.Leaders of the March 14 Alliance accused Syria of the attack, while the March 8 Alliance and Syrian officials claimed that the Mossad was behind the assassination. The Hariri assassination marked the beginning of a series of assassinations that resulted in the death of many prominent Lebanese figures.

 

 

The assassination triggered the Cedar Revolution, a series of demonstrations which demanded the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon and the establishment of an international commission to investigate the assassination. Under pressure from the West, Syria began withdrawing and by 26 April 2005 all Syrian soldiers had returned to Syria.

 

 

 

 

28th

 

Yom HaShoah in Israel (2014)

 

 
Yom HaZikaron laShoah ve-laG'vurah (יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה; "Holocaust and Heroism Remembrance Day"), known colloquially in Israel and abroad as Yom HaShoah (יום השואה) and in English as Holocaust Remembrance Day, or Holocaust Day, is observed as Israel's day of commemoration for the approximately six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust as a result of the actions carried out by Nazi Germany and its accessories, and for the Jewish resistance in that period. In Israel, it is a national memorial day. It was inaugurated in 1953, anchored by a law signed by the Prime Minister of Israel David Ben-Gurion and the President of Israel Yitzhak Ben-Zvi. It is held on the 27th of Nisan (April/May), unless the 27th would be adjacent to Shabbat, in which case the date is shifted by a day.

Some other countries have different commemorative days for the same event—see Holocaust Memorial Day.

 

 

TODAY

 

 
 

357 – Emperor Constantius II enters Rome for the first time to celebrate his victory over Magnus Magnentius.

 

 

In 351, Constantius clashed with Magnentius in Pannonia with a large army. The ensuing Battle of Mursa Major was one of the largest and bloodiest battles ever between two Roman armies. The result was a victory for Constantius, but a costly one. Magnentius survived the battle and, determined to fight on, withdrew into northern Italy. Rather than pursuing his opponent, however, Constantius turned his attention to securing the Danubian border, where he spent the early months of 352 campaigning against the Sarmatians along the middle Danube. After achieving his aims, Constantius advanced on Magnentius in Italy. This action led the cities of Italy to switch their allegiance to him and eject the usurper's garrisons. Again, Magnentius withdrew, this time to southern Gaul.

 

1192 Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I), King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title to the throne is confirmed by election. The killing is carried out by Hashshashin.

 

Conrad of Montferrat (or Conrad I of Jerusalem) (Italian: Corrado del Monferrato; Piedmontese: Conrà ëd Monfrà) (mid-1140s – 28 April 1192) was a northern Italian nobleman, one of the major participants in the Third Crusade. He was the de facto King of Jerusalem, by marriage, from 24 November 1190, but officially elected only in 1192, days before his death. He was also marquis of Montferrat from 1191.

 

 

A handsome man, with great personal courage and intelligence, he was described in the Brevis Historia Occupationis et Amissionis Terræ Sanctæ ("A Short History of the Occupation and Loss of the Holy Land"):

Conrad was vigorous in arms, extremely clever both in natural mental ability and by learning, amiable in character and deed, endowed with all the human virtues, supreme in every council, the fair hope of his own side and a blazing lightning-bolt to the foe, capable of pretence and dissimulation in politics, educated in every language, in respect of which he was regarded by the less articulate to be extremely fluent. In one thing alone was he regarded as blameworthy: that he had seduced another's wife away from her living husband, and made her separate from him, and married her himself.

(The last sentence alludes to his third marriage to Isabella of Jerusalem in 1190, for which see below.)

He was active in diplomacy from his twenties, and became an effective military commander, campaigning alongside other members of his family in the struggles with the Lombard League. He first married an unidentified lady, possibly a daughter of Count Meinhard I of Görz (It: Gorizia), before 1179, but she was dead by the end of 1186, without leaving any surviving issue.

 

 

1253 Nichiren, a Japanese Buddhist monk, propounds Nam Myoho Renge Kyo for the very first time and declares it to be the essence of Buddhism, in effect founding Nichiren Buddhism.

 

 

1932 – A vaccine for yellow fever is announced for use on humans.

 

 

Yellow fever virus is mainly transmitted through the bite of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, but other mosquitoes such as the tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) can also serve as a vector for this virus. Like other Arboviruses which are transmitted via mosquitoes, the yellow fever virus is taken up by a female mosquito when it ingests the blood of an infected human or other primate. Viruses reach the stomach of the mosquito, and if the virus concentration is high enough, the virions can infect epithelial cells and replicate there. From there they reach the haemocoel (the blood system of mosquitoes) and from there the salivary glands. When the mosquito next sucks blood, it injects its saliva into the wound, and the virus reaches the bloodstream of the bitten person. There are also indications for transovarial and transstadial transmission of the yellow fever virus within A. aegypti, that is, the transmission from a female mosquito to her eggs and then larvae. This infection of vectors without a previous blood meal seems to play a role in single, sudden breakouts of the disease.

 

1944 World War II: Nine German E-boats attacked US and UK units during Exercise Tiger, the rehearsal for the Normandy landings, killing 946.

 

Exercise Tiger, or Operation Tiger, was the code name for one in a series of large-scale rehearsals for the D-Day invasion of Normandy, which took place on Slapton Sands or Slapton Beach in Devon. Coordination and communication problems resulted in friendly fire deaths during the exercise, and an Allied convoy positioning itself for the landing was attacked by E-boats of the German Kriegsmarine, resulting in the deaths of 946 American servicemen. The incident was under the strictest secrecy at the time due to the impending invasion, and was only nominally reported afterward; as a result it has been called "forgotten".

 

 

1945 Benito Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci are executed by a firing squad consisting of members of the Italian resistance movement.

 

Clara Petacci, known as Claretta Petacci (Italian pronunciation: ; 28 February 1912 – 28 April 1945) was the mistress of the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, who was twenty-eight years her senior.

On 27 April 1945, Mussolini and Petacci were captured by Communist partisans while traveling with a convoy of Italian Social Republic members. On 28 April, she and Mussolini were taken to Mezzegra and shot. On the following day, 29 April, Mussolini's and Petacci's bodies were taken to the Piazzale Loreto in Milan and hung upside down in front of a petrol station. The bodies were photographed as a crowd vented their rage upon them.

 

 

 

1977 – The Red Army Faction trial ends, with Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe found guilty of four counts of murder and more than 30 counts of attempted murder.

 

The Red Army Faction (RAF; German: Rote Armee Fraktion), in its early stages commonly known as Baader-Meinhof Group (or Baader-Meinhof Gang), was a West German terrorist organization. The RAF was founded in 1970 by Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Horst Mahler, and Ulrike Meinhof. The RAF described itself as a communist and anti-imperialist "urban guerrilla" group engaged in armed resistance against what they deemed to be a fascist state. As such, members of the RAF generally used the Marxist-Leninist term "Faction" when they wrote in English.[1] The West German government considered the Red Army Faction to be a terrorist organization.

The Red Army Faction existed from 1970 to 1998, committing numerous operations, especially in late 1977, which led to a national crisis that became known as "German Autumn". It was held responsible for thirty-four deaths, including many secondary targets, such as chauffeurs and bodyguards, and many injuries in its almost thirty years of activity. Although better-known, the RAF conducted fewer attacks than the Revolutionary Cells (German: Revolutionäre Zellen, RZ), which is held responsible for 296 bomb attacks, arson and other attacks between 1973 and 1995.

 

 

 

 

1986 – The Chernobyl Disaster: High Levels of Radiation as a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident is detected at a nuclear power plant in Ukraine.

 

 

The Chernobyl disaster (Ukrainian: Чорнобильська катастрофа, Chornobylska Katastrofa Chornobyl Catastrophe; also referred as Chernobyl or the Chornobyl accident) was a catastrophic nuclear accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine (then officially the Ukrainian SSR), which was under the direct jurisdiction of the central authorities of the Soviet Union. An explosion and fire released large quantities of radioactive particles into the atmosphere, which spread over much of the western USSR and Europe.

The Chernobyl disaster is the worst nuclear power plant accident in history in terms of cost and resulting deaths, and is one of only two classified as a level 7 event (the maximum classification) on the International Nuclear Event Scale (the other being the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011). The battle to contain the contamination and avert a greater catastrophe ultimately involved over 500,000 workers and cost an estimated 18 billion rubles. During the accident itself 31 people died, and long-term effects such as cancers and deformities are still being accounted for.

 

 

The abandoned city of Pripyat with Chernobyl plant in the distance

 

 

Aerial view of the damaged core on 3 May 1986. Roof of the turbine hall is damaged (image center). Roof of the adjacent reactor 3 (image lower left) shows minor fire damage.

 

 

1988 – Near Maui, Hawaii, flight attendant Clarabelle "C.B." Lansing is blown out of Aloha Airlines Flight 243, a Boeing 737, and falls to her death when part of the plane's fuselage rips open in mid-flight.

 

 

1994 – Former Central Intelligence Agency counter-intelligence officer and analyst Aldrich Ames pleads guilty to giving U.S. secrets to the Soviet Union and later Russia.

 

 

Aldrich Hazen Ames (born May 26, 1941) is a former Central Intelligence Agency counterintelligence officer and analyst, who in 1994 was convicted of spying for the Soviet Union and Russia. So far as is known, Ames compromised the second-largest number of CIA assets—second only to those betrayed by Robert Hanssen.

While spending nine years working in CIA counter-intelligence, he declared an annual income of $60,000 but his credit card spending of up to $30,000 a month funded a lifestyle that included a new Jaguar and a $540,000 house that was paid for in cash.

In 1969 Ames married fellow officer Nancy Segebarth, whom he had met in the Career Trainee Program. When Ames was assigned to Ankara, Turkey, Nancy resigned from the CIA because of a rule that prohibited married partners from working as officers from the same office.

Ames' job in Turkey was to target Soviet intelligence officers for recruitment, and he succeeded in infiltrating the Communist Dev-Genç organization through a roommate of student activist Deniz Gezmiş. In spite of this success, Ames's performance was rated only "satisfactory", and Ames, discouraged by the critical assessment, considered leaving the CIA.

In 1972, Ames returned to CIA headquarters where he spent the next four years in the Soviet-East European (SE) Division. His performance reviews were "generally enthusiastic", apparently because he was better at managing paperwork and planning field operations than at agent recruiting. Nevertheless, his excessive drinking was also noted, and two "eyes only" memoranda were placed in his file

 

 

1996 – In Tasmania, Australia, Martin Bryant goes on a shooting spree, killing 35 people and seriously injuring 21 more.

 

 

 

Martin Bryant (born 7 May 1967) is an Australian mass murderer who pleaded guilty to murdering 35 people and injuring 23 others in the Port Arthur massacre, a shooting spree in Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia, in 1996. He is currently serving 35 life sentences plus 1,035 years without parole in the psychiatric wing of Risdon Prison in Hobart, Tasmania. His rampage ranks among the deadliest of the 20th century.

 

Descriptions of Bryant's behaviour as an adolescent show that he continued to be disturbed and outline the possibility of mental retardation. He was revealed to have extremely low intelligence, with an I.Q. of 66, equivalent to an 11-year-old and in the bottom 1.17 percent of the Australian population, and was possibly autistic. Further testing following his arrest indicated a verbal I.Q. of 64 and non-verbal reasoning and cognitive functioning of 68, giving a full scale I.Q. of 66, an age equivalent of 11 years in the 10th percentile (90% of 11 year olds would score higher). On leaving school he was assessed for a disability pension by a psychiatrist who wrote: "Cannot read or write. Does a bit of gardening and watches TV ... Only his parents' efforts prevent further deterioration. Could be schizophrenic and parents face a bleak future with him." Bryant received a disability pension, though he also worked as a handyman and gardener.

 

1999 – In Alberta, Canada, 14-year-old Todd Cameron Smith fires upon three students, killing one and wounding another in the W. R. Myers High School shooting.

 

 

The W. R. Myers High School shooting was a school shooting that occurred on April 28, 1999, at W. R. Myers High School in Taber, Alberta, Canada. The gunman, 14-year-old Todd Cameron Smith, walked into his school and began firing at three students in a hallway, killing one student and wounding another student.[1] This shooting took place only eight days after the Columbine High School Massacre in Littleton, Colorado, and is widely believed to have been a copycat crime.[2] It was the first fatal high-school shooting in Canada in more than two decades.

 

Smith's identity and background was originally protected under Canada's Young Offenders Act at the time of his arrest.[5][6] He had dropped out of W.R. Myers High School earlier in the school year. According to court documents, he had suffered severe bullying at school, including having been doused with lighter fluid and threatened to be set alight when he was in the first grade. He was remembered as being intelligent but socially awkward, and had become "reclusive and extremely fearful" by early adolescence. His mother said he had been showing signs of depression throughout his childhood. Smith's family stated that he "snapped" after watching coverage of the Columbine massacre, which had occurred eight days prior.

 

Crown prosecutors attempted to have then 15-year-old Smith tried as an adult with the potential for a life sentence with the possibility of parole in five years. The Crown also argued that an adult prison would offer greater educational programs than a youth facility could provide. The court denied the motion and he was tried as a juvenile.

 

Following his arrest and before the trial, a medical examination discovered Smith had a heart ailment that required open heart surgery. During the surgery, he suffered a stroke and fell into a coma. After awakening from the coma, he had speaking and eating difficulties and suffered from diminished mental capacity. His case was suspended until he recovered, as both the Crown and defense agreed he could not stand trial.Following a "remarkable recovery", he was declared suitable to stand trial, and was scheduled to appear in court in September 2000. At his trial, Smith pleaded guilty to all three charges, and was sentenced to three years in prison, and was ordered to live seven years on probation upon his release.

 

 

 

 

Eric Clapton - Pilgrim (Video) - YouTube.

 

 

 

27th

 
1509 Pope Julius II places the Italian state of Venice under interdict.

 

 

 

In the spring of 1509, the Republic of Venice was placed under an interdict by Julius. During the "War of the Holy League" and the "Italian Wars", alliances and participants changed dramatically. For example, in 1510 Venice and France switched places. By 1513, Venice had joined France.

 

The achievements of the League soon outstripped the primary intention of Julius. By one single battle, the Battle of Agnadello on 14 May 1509, the dominion of Venice in Italy was practically lost. But, as neither the King of France nor the Holy Roman Emperor were satisfied with merely effecting the purposes of the Pope, the latter found it necessary to enter into an arrangement with the Venetians to defend himself from those who immediately before had been his allies against them. The Venetians on making humble submission were absolved at the beginning of 1510, and shortly afterwards France was placed under papal interdict. Attempts to cause a rupture between France and England proved unsuccessful. On the other hand, at a synod convened by Louis at Tours in September 1510 the French bishops withdrew from papal obedience, and resolved, with Emperor Maximilian's co-operation, to seek the deposition of the pope. In November 1511, a council met for this objective at Pisa.

 

1522 – Combined forces of Spain and the Papal States defeat a French and Venetian army at the Battle of Bicocca.

 

 

The Battle of Bicocca or La Bicocca (Italian: Battaglia della Bicocca) was fought on 27 April 1522, during the Italian War of 1521–26. A combined French and Venetian force under Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, was decisively defeated by a Spanish-Imperial and Papal army under the overall command of Prospero Colonna. Lautrec then withdrew from Lombardy, leaving the Duchy of Milan in Imperial hands.

Having been driven from Milan by an Imperial advance in late 1521, Lautrec had regrouped, attempting to strike at Colonna's lines of communication. When the Swiss mercenaries in French service did not receive their pay, however, they demanded an immediate battle, and Lautrec was forced to attack Colonna's fortified position in the park of the Arcimboldi Villa Bicocca, north of Milan. The Swiss pikemen advanced over open fields under heavy artillery fire to assault the Imperial positions, but were halted at a sunken road backed by earthworks. Having suffered massive casualties from the fire of Spanish arquebusiers, the Swiss retreated. Meanwhile, an attempt by French cavalry to flank Colonna's position proved equally ineffective. The Swiss, unwilling to fight further, marched off to their cantons a few days later, and Lautrec retreated into Venetian territory with the remnants of his army.

The battle is noted chiefly for marking the end of the Swiss dominance among the infantry of the Italian Wars, and of the Swiss method of assaults by massed columns of pikemen without support from other troops. It was also one of the first engagements which established the decisive role of firearms on the battlefield.

 

1595 – The relics of Saint Sava are incinerated in Belgrade by the Ottomans, where today the largest Orthodox church building in the world stands

 

 

 

The burning of Saint Sava's relics by the Ottoman authorities, to suppress the Serbian rebels after the Banat Uprising, in 1595.

 

Saint Sava (Serbian: Свети Сава, Sveti Sava, pronounced [sʋɛ̂ːtiː sǎːʋa], also Saint Sabbas; 1174 – 14 January 1236) was a Serbian prince and Orthodox monk, the first Archbishop of the autocephalous Serbian Church, the founder of Serbian law and literature, and a diplomat. Sava was born Rastko Nemanjić (Растко Немањић, pronounced [râstkɔ nɛ̌maɲitɕ]), the youngest son of Serbian Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja (founder of the Nemanjić dynasty), and ruled the appanage of Hum briefly in 1190–1192. He became a monk in his youth, receiving the monastic name Sava (Sabbas), subsequently founding the monasteries of Hilandar on Mount Athos, and Žiča. In 1219 he was recognized as the first Archbishop of Serbs, by the Patriarch of Constantinople, and in the same year he authored the oldest known constitution of Serbia, Zakonopravilo, thus securing full independence; both religious and political. Sava heavily influenced Serbian medieval literature.

He is widely considered as one of the most important figures of Serbian history, and is canonized and venerated by the Serbian Orthodox Church, as its founder, on January 27 [O.S. January 14]. His life and has been interpreted in many artistic works from the Middle Ages to modern times. He is the patron saint of Serbian schools and schoolchildren.

The Cathedral of Saint Sava in Belgrade is dedicated to him, it was built on the scene where the Ottoman Turks allegedly burnt his remains in the 16th century, following an uprising in which the Serbs used icon depictions of Sava as their war flags; the cathedral is currently the largest Eastern Christian church building in the world.

 

 

 

1667 – The blind and impoverished John Milton sells the copyright of Paradise Lost for £10.

 

The poem is separated into twelve "books" or sections, the lengths of which vary greatly (the longest is Book IX, with 1,189 lines, and the shortest Book VII, with 640). The Arguments at the head of each book were added in subsequent imprints of the first edition. Originally published in ten books, a fully "Revised and Augmented" edition reorganized into twelve books was issued in 1674, and this is the edition generally used today.

The poem follows the epic tradition of starting in medias res (Latin for in the midst of things), the background story being recounted later.

Milton's story has two narrative arcs, one about Satan (Lucifer) and the other following Adam and Eve. It begins after Satan and the other rebel angels have been defeated and banished to Hell, or, as it is also called in the poem, Tartarus. In Pandæmonium, Satan employs his rhetorical skill to organise his followers; he is aided by Mammon and Beelzebub. Belial and Moloch are also present. At the end of the debate, Satan volunteers to poison the newly created Earth and God's new and most favoured creation, Mankind. He braves the dangers of the Abyss alone in a manner reminiscent of Odysseus or Aeneas. After an arduous traversal of the Chaos outside Hell, he enters God's new material World, and later the Garden of Eden.

At several points in the poem, an Angelic War over Heaven is recounted from different perspectives. Satan's rebellion follows the epic convention of large-scale warfare. The battles between the faithful angels and Satan's forces take place over three days. At the final battle, the Son of God single-handedly defeats the entire legion of angelic rebels and banishes them from Heaven. Following this purge, God creates the World, culminating in his creation of Adam and Eve. While God gave Adam and Eve total freedom and power to rule over all creation, He gave them one explicit command: not to eat from the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil on penalty of death.

 

The story of Adam and Eve's temptation and fall is a fundamentally different, new kind of epic: a domestic one. Adam and Eve are presented for the first time in Christian literature as having a full relationship while still being without sin. They have passions and distinct personalities. Satan, disguised in the form of a serpent, successfully tempts Eve to eat from the Tree by preying on her vanity and tricking her with rhetoric. Adam, learning that Eve has sinned, knowingly commits the same sin. He declares to Eve that since she was made from his flesh, they are bound to one another ‒ if she dies, he must also die. In this manner, Milton portrays Adam as a heroic figure, but also as a greater sinner than Eve, as he is aware that what he is doing is wrong.

After eating the fruit, Adam and Eve have lustful sex. At first, Adam is convinced that Eve was right in thinking that eating the fruit would be beneficial. However, they soon fall asleep and have terrible nightmares, and after they awake, they experience guilt and shame for the first time. Realizing that they have committed a terrible act against God, they engage in mutual recrimination.

Eve's pleas to Adam reconcile them somewhat. Her encouragement enables Adam and Eve both to approach God, to "bow and sue for grace with suppliant knee", and to receive grace from God. In a vision shown to him by the angel Michael, Adam witnesses everything that will happen to mankind until the Great Flood. Adam is very upset by this vision of the future, so Michael also tells him about humankind's potential redemption from original sin through Jesus Christ (whom Michael calls "King Messiah").

Adam and Eve are cast out of Eden, and Michael says that Adam may find "a paradise within thee, happier far". Adam and Eve also now have a more distant relationship with God, who is omnipresent but invisible (unlike the tangible Father in the Garden of Eden).

 

 

John Martin, Satan Presiding at the Infernal Council, c.1823-7

 

 

Gustave Doré, Depiction of Satan, the antagonist of John Milton's Paradise Lost c. 1866

 

 

Having gone totally blind in 1652, Milton wrote Paradise Lost entirely through dictation with the help of amanuenses and friends. He also wrote the epic poem while he was often ill, suffering from gout, and despite the fact that he was suffering emotionally after the early death of his second wife, Katherine Woodcock, in 1658, and the death of their infant daughter (though Milton remarried soon after in 1663).

 

1810 Beethoven composes Für Elise.

 

 

Für Elise (Piano version)

 

1865 – The steamboat SS Sultana, carrying 2,400 passengers, explodes and sinks in the Mississippi River, killing 1,700, most of whom are Union survivors of the Andersonville and Cahaba Prisons.

 

 

1941 World War II: German troops enter Athens.

 

 

The occupation of Greece by the Axis Powers (Greek: Η Κατοχή, I Katochi, meaning "The Occupation") began in April 1941 after Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany invaded Greece, and lasted until Germany and its satellite Bulgaria withdrew from mainland Greece in October 1944. German garrisons remained in control of Crete and other Aegean islands until after the end of World War II, surrendering to the Allies in May and June 1945.

 

The three occupation zones. Blue indicates the Italian, red the German and green the territory annexed by Bulgaria. The Italian zone was taken over by the Germans in September 1943.

 

Italy had initially invaded Greece in October 1940 but the invasion was stopped, and the Hellenic Army was able initially to push the invaders back into neighbouring Albania, then a protectorate of Italy. This forced Germany to shift its military focus from the preparation of "Operation Barbarossa" to an intervention on its ally's behalf in southern Europe. While most of the Hellenic Army was dislocated on the Albanian front to fend off the Italian counter-attacks, a rapid German Blitzkrieg campaign commenced in April 1941, and by June Greece was occupied by the Nazis who proceeded to administer the most important regions themselves, including Athens and Thessalonica. Other regions of the country were given to Germany's partners, Fascist Italy and Bulgaria. A collaborationist Greek government was established immediately after the country fell.

The occupation brought about terrible hardships for the Greek civilian population. Over 300,000 civilians died in Athens alone from starvation, tens of thousands more died because of reprisals by Nazis and collaborators, and the country's economy was ruined. At the same time the Greek Resistance, one of the most effective resistance movements in Occupied Europe,] was formed. These resistance groups launched guerrilla attacks against the occupying powers, fought against the collaborationist Security Battalions, and set up large espionage networks. By late 1943 the resistance groups began to fight amongst themselves. When liberation of the mainland came in October 1944, Greece was in a state of extreme political polarization, which soon led to the outbreak of civil war. The subsequent civil war gave the opportunity to many prominent Nazi collaborators not only to escape punishment (because of their anti-communism), but to eventually become the ruling class of postwar Greece, after the communist defeat.

 

1945 – World War II: Benito Mussolini is arrested by Italian partisans in Dongo, while attempting escape disguised as a German soldier.

 

Dongo is a comune in the Province of Como in the Italian region Lombardy. It lies on the northwestern shore of Lake Como between Gravedona and Musso at the mouth of the Albano. It is 70 kilometres (43 mi) north of Milan and about 40 kilometres (25 mi) northeast of Como.

It was in Dongo, on 27 April 1945, that Benito Mussolini and other fascists, fleeing from Milan towards Valtellina, were captured by Urbano Lazzaro and other partisans.

 

On 29 April 1945, the bodies of Mussolini, Petacci, and the other executed Fascists were loaded into a moving van and trucked south to Milan. There, at 3:00 am, they were dumped on the ground in the old Piazzale Loreto. The piazza had been renamed "Piazza Quindici Martiri" in honor of 15 anti-Fascists recently executed there.[

 

 

After being shot, kicked, and spat upon, the bodies were hung upside down on meat hooks from the roof of an Esso gas station. The bodies were then stoned by civilians from below. This was done both to discourage any Fascists from continuing the fight and as an act of revenge for the hanging of many partisans in the same place by Axis authorities. The corpse of the deposed leader became subject to ridicule and abuse. Fascist loyalist Achille Starace was captured and sentenced to death and then taken to the Piazzale Loreto and shown the body of Mussolini. Starace, who once said of Mussolini "He is a god," saluted what was left of his leader just before he was shot. The body of Starace was subsequently hung up next to the body of Mussolini.

After his death and the display of his corpse in Milan, Mussolini was buried in an unmarked grave in the Musocco cemetery, to the north of the city. On Easter Sunday 1946 his body was located and dug up by Domenico Leccisi and two other neo-Fascists.

 

 

1950 Apartheid: In South Africa, the Group Areas Act is passed formally segregating races.

 

1986 – The City of Prypiat as well as the surrounding areas are evacuated due to Chernobyl Disaster

 

 

A panorama of Pripyat, circa 2011. The abandoned Chernobyl power plant can be seen in the distance, at top center.

 

 

1987 – The U.S. Department of Justice bars Austrian President Kurt Waldheim from entering the United States, saying he had aided in the deportation and execution of thousands of Jews and others as a German Army officer during World War II.

 

 

1994 South African general election, 1994: The first democratic general election in South Africa, in which black citizens could vote. The Interim Constitution comes into force.

 

South Africa

 

General elections were held in South Africa on 27 April 1994. The elections were the first in which citizens of all races were allowed to take part, and were therefore also the first held with universal adult suffrage. The election was conducted under the direction of the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC), and marked the end of the four-year process that ended apartheid.

 

2011 – The April 25–28, 2011 tornado outbreak devastates parts of the Southeastern United States, especially the states of Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Tennessee. 205 tornadoes touched down on April 27 alone, killing more than 300 and injuring hundreds more.

 

 

Damage to the First Methodist church in downtown Cullman, Alabama.

 

 

 

26th

 
  1. 1336 – Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch) ascends Mont Ventoux.

 

Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch (/ˈptrɑrk/, /ˈpɛtrɑrk/), was an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance. Petrarch is often called the "Father of Humanism". In the 16th century, Pietro Bembo created the model for the modern Italian language based on Petrarch's works, as well as those of Giovanni Boccaccio, and, to a lesser extent, Dante Alighieri.  Petrarch would be later endorsed as a model for Italian style by the Accademia della Crusca. Petrarch's sonnets were admired and imitated throughout Europe during the Renaissance and became a model for lyrical poetry. He is also known for being the first to develop the concept of the "Dark Ages".

 

 

Petrarch recounts that on April 26, 1336, with his brother and two servants, he climbed to the top of Mont Ventoux (1,912 meters (6,273 ft)), a feat which he undertook for recreation rather than necessity. The exploit is described in a celebrated letter addressed to his friend and confessor, the monk Dionigi di Borgo San Sepolcro, composed some time after the fact. In it Petrarch claimed to have been inspired by Philip V of Macedon's ascent of Mount Haemo and that an aged peasant had told him that nobody had ascended Ventoux before or after himself, 50 years before, and warned him against attempting to do so. The nineteenth-century Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt noted that Jean Buridan had climbed the same mountain a few years before, and ascents accomplished during the Middle Ages have been recorded, including that of Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne.

 

 

English Translation by A. S. Kline

  1.  


     

    Breeze, blowing that blonde curling hair,
    stirring it, and being softly stirred in turn,
    scattering that sweet gold about, then
    gathering it, in a lovely knot of curls again,

    you linger around bright eyes whose loving sting
    pierces me so, till I feel it and weep,
    and I wander searching for my treasure,
    like a creature that often shies and kicks:

    now I seem to find her, now I realise
    she’s far away, now I’m comforted, now despair,
    now longing for her, now truly seeing her.

    Happy air, remain here with your
    living rays: and you, clear running stream,
    why can’t I exchange my path for yours?

     

  2. 1478 – The Pazzi attack Lorenzo de' Medici and kill his brother Giuliano during High Mass in the Duomo of Florence.

 

The Pazzi were involved in the conspiracy to replace the de' Medici as rulers of Florence, which bears their name. On 26 April 1478 there was an attempt to assassinate Lorenzo de' Medici and his brother Giuliano de' Medici. Lorenzo was wounded but survived; Giuliano was killed. The partial failure of the plot served to strengthen the position of the de' Medici. The Pazzi were banished from Florence.

After the overthrow of Piero de' Medici in 1494, the Pazzi family, and many other political exiles, returned to Florence to participate in the popular government. A notable member of the Pazzi family after the events surrounding the conspiracy and exile was Magdalena de Pazzi, who became a Carmelite nun.

 

  1.  

    In 2007, the Spanish writer Susana Fortes wrote her sixth novel, Quattrocento, drawing on the recent discovery of the Duke of Urbino's involvement in the conspiracy.

    The Czech writer Karel Schulz depicted members of the Pazzi family in his novel Kámen a bolest (The Stone and the Pain), which describes the Pazzi conspiracy.

     

  2. 1564 – Playwright William Shakespeare was baptized in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England (date of actual birth is unknown).

 

  1. Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith. Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613 at age 49, where he died three years later. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, and there has been considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, sexuality, religious beliefs, and whether the works attributed to him were written by others.

 

William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover originally from Snitterfield, and Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer. He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, Saint George's Day. This date, which can be traced back to an 18th-century scholar's mistake, has proved appealing to biographers, since Shakespeare died 23 April 1616.  He was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son.

Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare was probably educated at the King's New School in Stratford, a free school chartered in 1553, about a quarter-mile from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were largely similar, the basic Latin text was standardised by royal decree, and the school would have provided an intensive education in grammar based upon Latin classical authors.

 

 

John Shakespeare's house, believed to be Shakespeare's birthplace, in Stratford-upon-Avon.

 

The Hathaway family cottage near Stratford.

 

Hathaway married Shakespeare in November 1582 while pregnant with the couple's first child, to whom she gave birth six months later. Hathaway was 26/27 years of age; Shakespeare was only 18. This age difference, together with Hathaway's antenuptial pregnancy, has been employed by some historians as evidence that it was a "shotgun wedding", forced on a reluctant Shakespeare by the Hathaway family. There is, however, no evidence for this inference.

  1. 1721 A massive earthquake devastates the Iranian city of Tabriz.

 
Date April 26, 1721 (1721-04-26)
Magnitude 7.7 Ms
Epicenter 38°00′N 46°18′E / 38.0°N 46.3°E / 38.0; 46.3Coordinates: 38°00′N 46°18′E / 38.0°N 46.3°E / 38.0; 46.3[1]
Countries or regions Iran, Tabriz
Max. intensity VIII-X
Casualties 80,000 - 250,000

 

 

The 1721 Tabriz earthquake occurred on April 26th, with an epicenter near the city of Tabriz, Iran. Many prominent mosques and schools in the city were destroyed, resulting in the deaths of tens of thousands of people. The total number of casualties caused by the earthquake is between 8,000 and 250,000; it was most likely approx. 80,000. At the time that it occurred, the earthquake was popularly interpreted as an omen of misfortune, or a demonstration of godly wrath. The destruction that the earthquake caused was a significant factor in the successful Ottoman takeover of Tabriz in 1722, as well as contributing to Tabriz's economic difficulties during that period. It also caused the destruction of some of the city's significant historical monuments. Accounts of the earthquake are often confused with descriptions of the 1727 Tabriz earthquake.

  1. 1803 – Thousands of meteor fragments fall from the skies of L'Aigle, France; the event convinces European science that meteors exist.

 

  1. 1865 – Union cavalry troopers corner and shoot dead John Wilkes Booth, assassin of President Lincoln, in Virginia.

 

 

 

John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) was an American stage actor who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre, in Washington, D.C., on April 14, 1865. Booth was a member of the prominent 19th century Booth theatrical family from Maryland and, by the 1860s, was a well-known actor. He was also a Confederate sympathizer, vehement in his denunciation of Lincoln, and strongly opposed the abolition of slavery in the United States.

 

 

 

  1. 1923 The Duke of York weds Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon at Westminster Abbey.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Farting of George VI, 1951

 

 

 

Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon. She was queen consort of the United Kingdom from her husband's accession in 1936 until his death in 1952, after which she was known as Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, to avoid confusion with her daughter, another Queen Elizabeth. She was the last Empress of India.

 

  1. 1933 – The Gestapo, the official secret police force of Nazi Germany, is established.

 

 

  1. Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (German: [ˈhaɪnʁɪç ˈluˑɪtˌpɔlt ˈhɪmlɐ] ( ); 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (SS), a military commander, and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Nazi Germany. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler later appointed him Commander of the Replacement (Home) Army and General Plenipotentiary for the administration of the entire Third Reich (Generalbevollmächtigter für die Verwaltung). Himmler was one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and one of the persons most directly responsible for the Holocaust.

  2. The Gestapo (German pronunciation: [ɡeˈstaːpo, ɡəˈʃtaːpo] ( ); abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei, "Secret State Police") was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe. Hermann Göring formed the unit in 1933. Beginning on 20 April 1934, it was under the administration of SS national leader, Heinrich Himmler who in 1936 was appointed Chief of German Police (Chef der Deutschen Polizei) by Hitler. In 1936, Himmler made it a suboffice of the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo) ("Security Police"). Then from 27 September 1939 forward, it was administered by the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA) ("Reich Main Security Office") and was considered a sister organization of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) ("Security Service"). According to historian Rupert Butler, "From its creation in 1933 until its death in May 1945, anyone living in Nazi controlled territory lived in fear of a visit from the Gestapo...".

Plainclothes Gestapo agents during the White Buses operations in 1945.

 

 

  1. 1937 Spanish Civil War: Guernica (or Gernika in Basque), Spain is bombed by German Luftwaffe.

 

 

The bombing of Guernica (26 April 1937) was an aerial attack on the Basque town of Guernica, causing widespread destruction and civilian deaths during the Spanish Civil War. The raid by planes of the German Luftwaffe "Condor Legion" and the Italian Fascist Aviazione Legionaria was called Operation Rügen.

The bombing is considered one of the first raids in the history of modern military aviation on a defenseless civilian population.

The number of victims of the attack is still disputed; the Basque government reported 1,654 people killed, although modern figures suggest between 126 (later revised by the authors of the study to 153 to 400 civilians died. Russian archives reveal 800 deaths on 1 May 1937, but this number may not include victims who later died of their injuries in hospitals or whose bodies were discovered buried in the rubble.

 

The bombing was the subject of a famous anti-war painting by Pablo Picasso. It was also depicted in a woodcut by the German artist Heinz Kiwitz, who was later killed fighting in the International Brigades.The bombing shocked and inspired many other artists, including a sculpture by René Iché, one of the first electroacoustic music pieces by Patrick Ascione, of a musical composition by René-Louis Baron and a poem by Paul Eluard (Victory of Guernica). There is also a short film from 1950 by Alain Resnais entitled Guernica.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 1942 Benxihu Colliery accident in Manchukuo leaves 1549 Chinese miners dead.

 

  1. Benxihu (Honkeiko) Colliery (simplified Chinese: 本溪湖煤矿; traditional Chinese: 本溪湖煤礦), located in Benxi, Liaoning, China, was first mined in 1905. It started as an iron and coal mining project under joint Japanese and Chinese control. As time passed, the project came more and more under Japanese control. In the early 1930s, Japan invaded the north east of China and Liaoning province became part of the Japanese controlled puppet state of Manchukuo. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese forced the Chinese — some of whom had been captured from local military organizations — to work the colliery under very poor conditions. Food was scarce and workers did not have sufficient clothing. Working conditions were harsh and diseases such as typhoid and cholera flourished. Typically miners worked 12 hour shifts or longer. The Japanese controllers were known to beat workers with pick handles and the perimeter of the mine was fenced and guarded. Many describe the work as slave labour.

 

  1. Steel industry Feb 2013
  2. 1944 – Heinrich Kreipe is captured by Allied commandos in occupied Crete.

 

 

  1. In the night of 26 April, General Kreipe left his headquarters in Archanes and headed without escort to his well-guarded residence, "Villa Ariadni", approximately 25 km outside Heraklion. Major Fermor and Captain Moss, dressed as German military policemen, waited for him 1 km before his residence. They asked the driver to stop and asked for their papers. As soon as the car stopped, Fermor quickly opened Kreipe's door, rushed in and threatened him with his gun while Moss took the driver's seat. The abduction is commemorated near Archanes.  Moss drove the kidnappers and the General in his car for an hour and a half through 22 controlled road blocks in Heraklion before leaving Leigh Fermor to go on and abandon the car, with suitable decoy material being planted that suggesting an escape off the island had been made by submarine. Moss set off with the General on a cross-country march supported by andartes to be rejoined by Leigh Fermor. Hunted by German patrols, the group moved across the mountains to reach the southern side of the island, where a British Motor Launch (ML 842 commanded by Brian Coleman) was to pick them up. Eventually, on 14 May 1944, they were picked up (from Peristeres beach near Rhodakino) and transferred to Egypt.

    Kreipe was interrogated, and then transferred to a POW camp in Canada. Later transferred to a special camp in Wales,  Kreipe was released from British captivity in 1947. General Kreipe met his kidnappers one more time in 1972 in a Greek TV show. He died at Northeim on 14 June 1976.

     

     

  2. 1945 World War II: Battle of Bautzen – last successful German tank-offensive of the war and last noteworthy victory of the Wehrmacht.

  3. By 25 April Polish units were able to stabilize a defense on the line Kamenz–Kuckau–north Bautzen–Spree–SpreewieseHeideanger. On that day, Hitler congratulated Schörner on his "victory". The Polish 7th and 10th Infantry Divisions were ordered to advance toward Sdier-Heideanger. The 7th and 10th Polish Infantry Divisions slowly advanced, with the 10th reaching north of Spreefurt. With the Soviet units on their right flank they also secured a road to Königswartha.

     

    The 9th Division found itself alone at the spearhead of the abandoned Polish push towards Dresden. It received orders to retreat on 26 April. Attempting to withdraw quickly and to form back with the main forces, it was intercepted by the Germans and sustained heavy losses.  The units were moving with insufficient security, on the assumption that the line of retreat was safe; at the same time the Germans captured Polish orders with details of their planned withdrawal routes. Coordination between the units was also lacking  26th Infantry Regiment from the 9th Division took very heavy casualties (75 percent) in the "valley of death" around Panschwitz-Kuckau and Crostwitz. A Polish military hospital convoy from the same division was ambushed near Horka, with most of its personnel and wounded executed (about 300 casualties). There was only one survivor, chaplain Jan Rdzanek. The division commander, Colonel Aleksander Łaski, was taken captive. As a result of these losses, the 9th Division ceased to be an effective force; the remaining personnel were merged into the Soviet 19th Guards Rifle Division.

    According to some sources, 26 April marks the end of this battle, although less severe and isolated clashes in that region continued until 30 April. Other sources note that heavy fighting still took place on 27 April, and that the German advance was only completely halted by 28 April. By the end of the month, the Polish Second Army and the Soviet forces had repelled the German attack, forming a line toward Kamenz–DoberschützDauban, and was preparing to launch an offensive toward Prague.

     

     

     

 

 

 

  1. Both sides suffered heavy casualties. The Polish casualties were particularly severe. In a relatively short time the Polish Second Army lost more than 22 percent of its personnel and 57 percent of its tanks and armored vehicles (about 200 total). Official estimates claimed about 18,000 casualties (including almost 5,000 dead). Some other estimates give the Polish casualties as up to 25,000. According to Polish historian Zbigniew Wawer, this was the most bloody battle that the Polish Army had been involved in since the battle of Bzura in 1939

  1. 1982 – Fifty-seven people are killed by former police officer Woo Bum-kon in a shooting spree in Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea.

 

 

 

Woo Bum-kon (or Wou Bom-kon) (February 24, 1955 – April 27, 1982) was a South Korean police officer who killed 56 people and wounded 35 others in several villages in Uiryeong County, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea, during the night from April 26 to April 27, 1982, before committing suicide.

His rampage remained the deadliest known mass murder committed by a lone gunman in modern history until the Norway attacks of July 22, 2011.

 

 

 

  1. 1986 – A nuclear reactor accident occurs at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Soviet Union (now Ukraine), creating the world's worst nuclear disaster.

 

 

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant or Chornobyl Nuclear Power Station (Ukrainian: Чорнобильська атомна електростанція, Russian: Чернобыльская АЭС) is a decommissioned nuclear power station near the city of Pripyat, Ukraine, 14.5 km (9.0 mi) northwest of the city of Chernobyl, 16 km (9.9 mi) from the Ukraine–Belarus border, and about 110 km (68 mi) north of Kiev. Reactor No. 4 was the site of the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the power plant is now within a large restricted area known as the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

The nuclear power plant site is to be cleaned by 2065. On January 3, 2010, a Ukrainian law stipulating a programme toward this objective came into effect.

 

 

 

 

Reactor No. 4 with its enclosing sarcophagus.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 1989 The deadliest tornado in world history strikes Central Bangladesh, killing upwards of 1,300, injuring 12,000, and leaving as many as 80,000 homeless.

 

 

 

 

Damage was extensive over the area, as countless trees were uprooted and every home within a six square kilometer area of the tornado's path was completely destroyed. After the storm hit, an article in the Bangladesh Observer stated that "The devastation was so complete, that barring some skeletons of trees, there were no signs of standing infrastructures". The tornado was estimated to be approximately one mile wide, and had a path that was about 50 miles long, through the poor areas and slums of Bangladesh. Approximately 80,000 people were left homeless by the storm, and 12,000 people were injured by the storm.  Saturia and Manikganj were both fully destroyed by the tornado. The Fujita scale rating of this storm is unknown due to poor housing construction and lack of data. In Bangladesh, housing construction in the poor areas is very poor, so sometimes a strong gust of wind may knock over a home and kill the residents inside. This is also why the vast majority of homes hit by the tornado were leveled.

 

 

 

  1. 1991 – Seventy tornadoes break out in the central United States. Before the outbreak's end, Andover, Kansas, would record the year's only F5 tornado (see Andover, Kansas Tornado Outbreak).

Damage from the Andover tornado

 

 

 

 

  1. 1994 China Airlines Flight 140 crashes at Nagoya Airport in Japan, killing 264 of the 271 people on board.

 

 

China Airlines Flight 140 was a regularly scheduled passenger flight from Chiang Kai-shek International Airport in Taipei, Taiwan, to Nagoya Airport in Nagoya, Japan. On 26 April 1994, the Airbus A300B4-622R was completing a routine flight and approach, when, just before landing at Nagoya Airport, the First Officer inadvertently pressed the Takeoff/Go-around button (also known as a TO/GA) which raises the throttle position to the same as take offs and go-arounds.

 

 

  1. 2002 Robert Steinhäuser infiltrates and kills 16 at Gutenberg-Gymnasium in Erfurt, Germany before dying of a self-inflicted gunshot.

 

 

  1. The Erfurt massacre was a school massacre that occurred on 26 April 2002 at the Gutenberg-Gymnasium in Erfurt, Germany. The gunman, 19-year-old expelled student Robert Steinhäuser, shot and killed 16 people; comprising 13 faculty members, two students, and one police officer, before committing suicide. One person was also wounded by a bullet fragment.

 

 

  1. On the day of the shooting, Steinhäuser armed himself with a 9mm Glock 17and a Mossberg 590 Mariner 12-gauge pump-action shotgun, which was unusable due to an earlier handling error, before leaving his residence at his usual time. When he entered the campus, he went into the lavatories to change his clothes, and then donned a black ninja-style outfit.

    The shooting started at approximately 10:58 a.m. Steinhäuser had moved from classroom to classroom, pausing briefly each time in the doorway to shoot the teacher, then moving on to the next room. According to students, he ignored them and aimed only for the teachers and administrators, although two students were killed by shots fired through a locked door.

     

  2. 2005 – Under international pressure, Syria withdraws the last of its 14,000 troop military garrison in Lebanon, ending its 29-year military domination of that country (Syrian occupation of Lebanon).

 

 

Since then, Syrian forces remained in Lebanon, exercising considerable influence. In 1991, a Treaty of "Brotherhood, Cooperation, and Coordination", signed between Lebanon and Syria, legitimized the Syrian military presence in Lebanon. It stipulated that Lebanon would not be made a threat to Syria's security and that Syria was responsible for protecting Lebanon from external threats. In September that same year a Defense and Security Pact was enacted between the two countries.

After the Israeli withdrawal from southern Lebanon and the death of Hafez Al-Assad in 2000, the Syrian military presence faced criticism and resistance from the Lebanese population.

 

Following the assassination of the Lebanese ex-premier Rafik Hariri, and an alleged involvement of Syria in his death a public uprising nicknamed Cedar Revolution had swept the country. With the consequent adoption of UN resolution 1559, Syria was forced to announce its full withdrawal from Lebanon on April 30, 2005.

 

 

 

25th

 

Anzac Day in Australia and New Zealand (1915); Elbe Day in Russia and the United States (1945)

 

 

Feast day of Mark the Evangelist

 

 

Mark the Evangelist (Latin: Mārcus; Greek: Μᾶρκος; Coptic: Μαρκοϲ; Hebrew: מרקוס‎) is the traditional author of the Gospel of Mark. One of the Seventy Disciples, Mark founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the original three main episcopal sees of Christianity.

According to William Lane (1974), an "unbroken tradition" identifies Mark the Evangelist with John Mark, and John Mark as the cousin of Barnabas. However, Hippolytus of Rome in On the Seventy Apostles distinguishes Mark the Evangelist (2 Tim 4:11), John Mark (Acts 12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37), and Mark the cousin of Barnabas (Col 4:10; Phlm 1:24). According to Hippolytus, they all belonged to the "Seventy Disciples" who were sent out by Jesus to saturate Judea with the gospel (Luke 10:1ff.).

 

 However, when Jesus explained that his flesh was "real food" and his blood was "real drink", many disciples left him (John 6:44–6:66), presumably including Mark. He was later restored to faith by the apostle Peter; he then became Peter’s interpreter, wrote the Gospel of Mark, founded the church of Africa, and became the bishop of Alexandria.

 

According to Eusebius of Caesarea (Eccl. Hist. 2.9.1–4), Herod Agrippa I in his first year of reign over the whole Judea (AD 41) killed James, son of Zebedee and arrested Peter, planning to kill him after the Passover. Peter was saved miraculously by angels, and escaped out of the realm of Herod (Acts 12:1–19). Peter went to Antioch, then through Asia Minor (visiting the churches in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, as mentioned in 1 Pet 1:1), and arrived in Rome in the second year of Emperor Claudius (AD 42; Eusebius, Eccl, Hist. 2.14.6). Somewhere on the way, Peter picked up Mark and took him as travel companion and interpreter. Mark the Evangelist wrote down the sermons of Peter, thus composing the Gospel according to Mark (Eccl. Hist. 15–16), before he left for Alexandria in the third year of Claudius (43).

 

In AD 49, about 19 years after the Ascension of Jesus, Mark traveled to Alexandria [cf. c. 49 [cf. Acts 15:36–41] and founded the Church of Alexandria, which today is part of the Coptic Orthodox Church. Aspects of the Coptic liturgy can be traced back to Mark himself.  He became the first bishop of Alexandria and he is honored as the founder of Christianity in Africa.

 

According to Eusebius (Eccl. Hist. 2.24.1), Mark was succeeded by Annianus as the bishop of Alexandria in the eighth year of Nero (62/63), probably, but not definitely, due to his coming death. Later Coptic tradition says that he was martyred in 68. It is believed that on the night when Jesus was arrested in the garden of Gethsemane, Mark had followed him there and when the Temple guards saw him, he ran away and dropped his loincloth.

His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion.

 

 


 

1915 World War I: The Battle of Gallipoli begins—The invasion of the Turkish Gallipoli Peninsula by Australian, British, French and New Zealand troops begins with landings at Anzac Cove and Cape Helles.

 

 

1916 – Anzac Day is commemorated for the first time on the first anniversary of the landing at Anzac Cove.

 

The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli or the Battle of Çanakkale (Turkish: Çanakkale Savaşı), was a World War I campaign that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916. The peninsula forms the northern bank of the Dardanelles, a strait that provides a sea route to what was then the Russian Empire, one of the Allied powers during the war. Intending to secure it, Russia's allies Britain and France launched a naval attack followed by an amphibious landing on the peninsula with the eventual aim of capturing the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul).  The naval attack was repelled and, after eight months' fighting, with many casualties on both sides, the land campaign also failed and the invasion force was withdrawn to Egypt.

 

The campaign was one of the greatest Ottoman victories during the war and a major Allied failure. In Turkey, it is regarded as a defining moment in the nation's history: a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the Ottoman Empire crumbled. The struggle formed the basis for the Turkish War of Independence and the founding of the Republic of Turkey eight years later under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who first rose to prominence as a commander at Gallipoli. The campaign is often considered as marking the birth of national consciousness in Australia and New Zealand and the date of the landing, 25 April, is known as "Anzac Day". It remains the most significant commemoration of military casualties and veterans in those two countries, surpassing Remembrance Day (Armistice Day).

 

 

1945 Elbe Day: United States and Soviet troops meet in Torgau along the River Elbe, cutting the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany in two, a milestone in the approaching end of World War II in Europe.

 

 

In an arranged photo commemorating the meeting of the Soviet and American armies, 2nd Lt. William Robertson (U.S. Army) and Lt. Alexander Silvashko (Red Army) stand facing one another with hands clasped and arms around each other's shoulders. In the background are two flags and a poster.

 

Elbe Day, April 25, 1945, is the day Soviet and American troops met at the River Elbe, near Torgau in Germany, marking an important step toward the end of World War II in Europe. This contact between the Soviets, advancing from the East, and the Americans, advancing from the West, meant that the two powers had effectively cut Germany in two.

Elbe Day has never been an official holiday in any country, but in the years after 1945 the memory of this friendly encounter gained new significance in the context of the Cold War between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.

 

 

1945 – The Nazi occupation army surrenders and leaves Northern Italy after a general partisan insurrection by the Italian resistance movement; the puppet fascist regime dissolves and Benito Mussolini tries to escape. This day is taken as symbolic of the Liberation of Italy.

 

 

 

Italy's Liberation Day (Festa della Liberazione), also known as the Anniversary of the Liberation (Anniversario della liberazione d'Italia), Anniversary of the Resistance (anniversario della Resistenza), or simply April 25 is a national Italian holiday commemorating the end of the second world war and the end of Nazi occupation of the country.

 

The date was chosen by convention, as it corresponds to the day Milan and Turin were liberated, on April 25, 1945. This was also the day when the National Liberation Committee of Upper Italy (CLNAI) officially proclaimed the insurgency in a radio announcement, announcing the seizure of power by the CLNAI and the death sentence for all fascists (including Benito Mussolini, who was shot three days later).

By May 1, all of northern Italy was liberated, including Bologna (April 21), Genoa (April 23), and Venice (April 28). The liberation put an end to twenty years of fascist dictatorship and five years of war. It symbolically represents the beginning of the historical journey which led to the referendum of June 2, 1946, when Italians opted for an end to the monarchy and the creation of the Italian Republic, which was followed by the adoption of the republic's Constitution of Italy in 1947.

 

1953 Francis Crick and James D. Watson publish "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" describing the double helix structure of DNA.

 

 

 

 

 
DVD - R159.00
 

 

 

1965 – Teenage sniper Michael Andrew Clark kills three and wounds six others shooting from a hilltop along Highway 101 just south of Santa Maria, California.

 

Early on the Sunday morning of April 25, 1965, 16-year-old Michael Andrew Clark opened fire on cars traveling along Highway 101 just south of Orcutt, California, from a nearby hilltop. Three people were killed and ten were wounded before Clark committed suicide upon arrival of police.

 

Late on the night of April 24, 1965 Michael Andrew Clark, who lived in Long Beach, California, had left home in his parents' car, without their permission. In the back of the car, he had a Swedish Mauser military rifle equipped with telescopic sight and a pistol he had removed from his father's locked gun safe along with a large quantity of ammunition. Early the next Sunday morning, he climbed to the top of a hill overlooking a stretch of US Highway 101, just south of Orcutt, California. As the sun came up, Clark began shooting at automobiles driving down the 101 highway.

 

Two were killed and six more were wounded as the shooting continued for hours before Santa Barbara County Sheriff's Office deputies rushed the hill and Clark committed suicide as they closed in.A five-year-old-boy wounded in the head died a day later bringing the total to three dead for the rampage.

Reportedly the two men killed at the scene of the shooting were attempting to assist others who were trapped in a vehicle which had been hit by the gunfire.

 

 

1966 – The city of Tashkent is destroyed by a huge earthquake.

 

 

 

1983 – American schoolgirl Samantha Smith is invited to visit the Soviet Union by its leader Yuri Andropov after he read her letter in which she expressed fears about nuclear war.

 

 

Dear Mr. Andropov,
My name is Samantha Smith. I am ten years old. Congratulations on your new job. I have been worrying about Russia and the United States getting into a nuclear war. Are you going to vote to have a war or not? If you aren't please tell me how you are going to help to not have a war. This question you do not have to answer, but I would like to know why you want to conquer the world or at least our country. God made the world for us to live together in peace and not to fight.
Sincerely,
Samantha Smith
Dear Samantha,
I received your letter, which is like many others that have reached me recently from your country and from other countries around the world.
It seems to me – I can tell by your letter – that you are a courageous and honest girl, resembling Becky, the friend of Tom Sawyer in the famous book of your compatriot Mark Twain. This book is well known and loved in our country by all boys and girls.
You write that you are anxious about whether there will be a nuclear war between our two countries. And you ask are we doing anything so that war will not break out.
Your question is the most important of those that every thinking man can pose. I will reply to you seriously and honestly.
Yes, Samantha, we in the Soviet Union are trying to do everything so that there will not be war on Earth. This is what every Soviet man wants. This is what the great founder of our state, Vladimir Lenin, taught us.
Soviet people well know what a terrible thing war is. Forty-two years ago, Nazi Germany, which strove for supremacy over the whole world, attacked our country, burned and destroyed many thousands of our towns and villages, killed millions of Soviet men, women and children.
In that war, which ended with our victory, we were in alliance with the United States: together we fought for the liberation of many people from the Nazi invaders. I hope that you know about this from your history lessons in school. And today we want very much to live in peace, to trade and cooperate with all our neighbors on this earth—with those far away and those near by. And certainly with such a great country as the United States of America.
In America and in our country there are nuclear weapons—terrible weapons that can kill millions of people in an instant. But we do not want them to be ever used. That's precisely why the Soviet Union solemnly declared throughout the entire world that never—never—will it use nuclear weapons first against any country. In general we propose to discontinue further production of them and to proceed to the abolition of all the stockpiles on Earth.
It seems to me that this is a sufficient answer to your second question: 'Why do you want to wage war against the whole world or at least the United States?' We want nothing of the kind. No one in our country–neither workers, peasants, writers nor doctors, neither grown-ups nor children, nor members of the government–want either a big or 'little' war.
We want peace—there is something that we are occupied with: growing wheat, building and inventing, writing books and flying into space. We want peace for ourselves and for all peoples of the planet. For our children and for you, Samantha.
I invite you, if your parents will let you, to come to our country, the best time being this summer. You will find out about our country, meet with your contemporaries, visit an international children's camp – Artek – on the sea. And see for yourself: in the Soviet Union, everyone is for peace and friendship among peoples.
Thank you for your letter. I wish you all the best in your young life.
Y. Andropov

On August 25, 1985, Smith and her father were returning home aboard Bar Harbor Airlines Flight 1808 after filming a segment for Lime Street. While attempting to land at Lewiston-Auburn Regional Airport in Auburn, Maine, the Beechcraft 99 commuter plane struck some trees 4,007 feet (1,221 m) short of the runway and crashed, killing all six passengers and two crew on board

 

1986 Mswati III is crowned King of Swaziland, succeeding his father Sobhuza II.

 

 

1988 – In Israel, John Demjanuk is sentenced to death for war crimes committed in World War II.

 

 

 

Demjanjuk was born in Ukraine, and during World War II was drafted into the Soviet Red Army, where he was captured as a German prisoner of war. In 1952 he emigrated from West Germany to the United States, and was granted citizenship in 1958 whereupon he formally anglicized his name from "Ivan" to "John".[

In 1986 he was deported to Israel to stand trial for war crimes, after being identified by eleven Holocaust survivors, many from Israel, as "Ivan the Terrible", a notorious guard at the Treblinka extermination camp in Nazi occupied Poland. Demjanjuk was accused of committing murder and acts of extraordinarily savage violence against camp prisoners during 1942–43. He was convicted of having committed crimes against humanity and sentenced to death there in 1988. The verdict was overturned by the Israeli Supreme Court in 1993, based on new evidence that "Ivan the Terrible" was probably another man, Ivan Marchenko. After the trial, in September 1993, he returned to his home in Ohio. In 1998 his citizenship was restored after a United States federal appeals court ruled that prosecutors had suppressed exculpatory evidence concerning his identity.

 

On 12 May 2011, Demjanjuk was convicted pending appeal by an ordinary German criminal court as an accessory to the murder of 27,900 Jews at Sobibor and sentenced to five years in prison. The interim conviction was later annulled, because Demjanjuk died before his appeal could be heard. He was later released pending trial and final verdict by the German Appellate Court. He lived at a German nursing home in Bad Feilnbach, where he died on 17 March 2012.  Despite decades of legal wrangling and controversy, Demjanjuk died a free man and legally innocent.

 

2005 – The final piece of the Obelisk of Axum is returned to Ethiopia after being stolen by the invading Italian army in 1937.

 

 

 

 

 

24th

  Genocide Remembrance Day in Armenia;

 

 

Genocide Remembrance Day (Armenian: Եղեռնի զոհերի հիշատակի օր Yegherrni Zoheri Hishataki Or) or Genocide Memorial day, is a national holiday in Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and is observed by Armenians in dispersed communities around the world on April 24. It is held annually to commemorate the victims of the Armenian Genocide from 1915 to 1923. In Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, hundreds of thousands of people walk to the Tsitsernakaberd Genocide Memorial to lay flowers at the eternal flame.

 
1479 BC Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty).

 

 

Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning Thoth is born) was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. During the first twenty-two years of Thutmose's reign he was co-regent with his stepmother and aunt, Hatshepsut, who was named the pharaoh. While he was shown first on surviving monuments, both were assigned the usual royal names and insignia and neither is given any obvious seniority over the other.  He served as the head of her armies.

After her death and his later rise to pharaoh of the kingdom, he created the largest empire Egypt had ever seen; no fewer than seventeen campaigns were conducted, and he conquered from Niya in North Syria to the Fourth Cataract of the Nile in Nubia.

Officially, Thutmose III ruled Egypt for almost fifty-four years, and his reign is usually dated from April 24, 1479 BCE to March 11, 1425 BCE; however, this includes the twenty-two years he was co-regent to Hatshepsut. During the final two years of his reign, he appointed his son and successor, Amenhotep II, as his junior co-regent. When Thutmose III died, he was buried in the Valley of the Kings as were the rest of the kings from this period in Egypt.

 

 

 

1184 BC – Traditional date of the fall of Troy.

 

 

In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus king of Sparta. The war is one of the most important events in Greek mythology and has been narrated through many works of Greek literature, most notably through Homer's Iliad. The Iliad relates a part of the last year of the siege of Troy; its sequel, the Odyssey describes Odysseus's journey home. Other parts of the war are described in a cycle of epic poems, which have survived through fragments. Episodes from the war provided material for Greek tragedy and other works of Greek literature, and for Roman poets including Virgil and Ovid.

 

The war originated from a quarrel between the goddesses Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite, after Eris, the goddess of strife and discord, gave them a golden apple, sometimes known as the Apple of Discord, marked "for the fairest". Zeus sent the goddesses to Paris, who judged that Aphrodite, as the "fairest", should receive the apple. In exchange, Aphrodite made Helen, the most beautiful of all women and wife of Menelaus, fall in love with Paris, who took her to Troy. Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and the brother of Helen's husband Menelaus, led an expedition of Achaean troops to Troy and besieged the city for ten years because of Paris' insult. After the deaths of many heroes, including the Achaeans Achilles and Ajax, and the Trojans Hector and Paris, the city fell to the ruse of the Trojan Horse. The Achaeans slaughtered the Trojans (except for some of the women and children whom they kept or sold as slaves) and desecrated the temples, thus earning the gods' wrath. Few of the Achaeans returned safely to their homes and many founded colonies in distant shores. The Romans later traced their origin to Aeneas, one of the Trojans, who was said to have led the surviving Trojans to modern-day Italy.

The ancient Greeks thought that the Trojan War was a historical event that had taken place in the 13th or 12th century BC, and believed that Troy was located in modern-day Turkey near the Dardanelles. As of the mid-19th century, both the war and the city were widely believed to be non-historical. In 1868, however, the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann met Frank Calvert, who convinced Schliemann that Troy was at Hissarlik and Schliemann took over Calvert's excavations on property belonging to Calvert;  this claim is now accepted by most scholars.  Whether there is any historical reality behind the Trojan War is an open question. Many scholars believe that there is a historical core to the tale, though this may simply mean that the Homeric stories are a fusion of various tales of sieges and expeditions by Mycenaean Greeks during the Bronze Age. Those who believe that the stories of the Trojan War are derived from a specific historical conflict usually date it to the 12th or 11th centuries BC, often preferring the dates given by Eratosthenes, 1194–1184 BC, which roughly corresponds with archaeological evidence of a catastrophic burning of Troy VII.

 

 

 

 

1914 – The Franck–Hertz experiment, a pillar of quantum mechanics, is presented to the German Physical Society.

 

 

DVD

PRICE R 159.00

 

 

Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small: the body of scientific principles that explains the behaviour of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.

Classical physics explains matter and energy on a scale familiar to human experience, including the behaviour of astronomical bodies. It remains the key to measurement for much of modern science and technology. However, toward the end of the 19th century, scientists discovered phenomena in both the large (macro) and the small (micro) worlds that classical physics could not explain. Coming to terms with these limitations led to two major revolutions in physics – one being the theory of relativity, the other being the development of quantum mechanics. This article describes how physicists discovered the limitations of classical physics and developed the main concepts of the quantum theory that replaced it in the early decades of the 20th century. These concepts are described in roughly the order in which they were first discovered; for a more complete history of the subject, see History of quantum mechanics.

 

 

 

1915 – The arrest of 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders in Istanbul marks the beginning of the Armenian Genocide.

 

 

The deportation of Armenian intellectuals, sometimes known as Red Sunday (Armenian: Կարմիր կիրակի Garmir giragi), was an event during the Armenian Genocide in which leaders of the Armenian community of the Ottoman capital, Constantinople (today Istanbul), and later other locations were arrested and moved to two holding centers near Ankara upon the order of the Minister of the Interior Talaat Pasha on 24 April 1915. On that night, the first wave of 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals of Constantinople were arrested. Eventually, the total number of arrests and deportations amounted to 2,345. With the adoption of the Tehcir Law on 29 May 1915, these detainees were later relocated within the Empire and most of them were killed. A few, such as Vrtanes Papazian and Komitas, were saved through intervention.

Genocide Remembrance Day in order to commemorate the victims of the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire, is observed on 24 April. Most who commemorate the Armenian Genocide consider 24 April 1915 to be the date which the event began. Genocide Remembrance Day was first commemorated in 1919 as in observance of its four-year anniversary in Constantinople. Since then, the Armenian Genocide has been commemorated annually on the same day. Genocide Remembrance Day has become a national holiday in Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and is observed by the Armenian diaspora around the world.

 

 

Of this photo, the United States ambassador wrote, "Scenes like this were common all over the Armenian provinces, in the spring and summer months of 1915. Death in its several forms—massacre, starvation, exhaustion—destroyed the larger part of the refugees. The Turkish policy was that of extermination under the guise of deportation".

 

 

Map of massacre locations and deportation and extermination centers

 

 

The remains of Armenians massacred at Erzinjan.

 

1916 Easter Rising: The Irish Republican Brotherhood led by nationalists Patrick Pearse, James Connolly, and Joseph Plunkett starts a rebellion in Ireland.

 

 

The Easter Rising (Irish: Éirí Amach na Cásca), also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection staged in Ireland during Easter Week, 1916. The Rising was mounted by Irish republicans with the aims of ending British rule in Ireland, seceding from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and establishing an independent Irish Republic at a time when the United Kingdom was heavily engaged in World War I. It was the most significant uprising in Ireland since the rebellion of 1798. Organised by seven members of the Military Council of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, the Rising began on Easter Monday, 24 April 1916, and lasted for six days. Members of the Irish Volunteers — led by schoolmaster and Irish language activist Patrick Pearse, joined by the smaller Irish Citizen Army of James Connolly, along with 200 members of Cumann na mBan — seized key locations in Dublin and proclaimed the Irish Republic independent of the United Kingdom. There were some actions in other parts of Ireland: however, except for the attack on the Royal Irish Constabulary barracks at Ashbourne, County Meath, they were minor.

 

 

1923 – In Vienna, the paper Das Ich und das Es (The Ego and the Id) by Sigmund Freud is published, which outlines Freud's theories of the id, ego, and super-ego.

 

 

1933 Nazi Germany begins its persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses by shutting down the Watch Tower Society office in Magdeburg.

 

Jehovah's Witnesses suffered religious persecution in Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1945 after refusing to perform military service, join Nazi organizations or give allegiance to the Hitler regime. An estimated 10,000 Witnesses—half of the number of members in Germany during that period—were imprisoned, including 2000 who were sent to concentration camps. An estimated 1200 died in custody, including 250 who were executed. They were the first Christian denomination banned in the Third Reich and the most extensively and intensively persecuted. Unlike Jews and Gypsies who were persecuted on the basis of their ethnicity, Jehovah's Witnesses could escape persecution and personal harm by renouncing their religious beliefs by signing a document indicating renouncement of their faith, submission to state authority, and support of the German military Historian Sybil Milton concludes that "their courage and defiance in the face of torture and death punctures the myth of a monolithic Nazi state ruling over docile and submissive subjects."

The group came under increasing public and governmental persecution from 1933, with many expelled from jobs and schools, deprived of income and suffering beatings and imprisonment, despite early attempts to demonstrate shared goals with the National Socialist regime. Historians are divided over whether the Nazis intended to exterminate them, but several authors have claimed the Witnesses' militancy and outspoken condemnation of the Nazis contributed to their level of suffering.

 

 

 

1953 Winston Churchill is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.

 

 

1980 – Eight U.S. servicemen die in Operation Eagle Claw as they attempt to end the Iran hostage crisis.

 

 

Operation Eagle Claw (or Operation Evening Light or Operation Rice Bowl) was an United States Armed Forces operation ordered by US President Jimmy Carter to attempt to end the Iran hostage crisis by rescuing 52 diplomats held captive at the embassy of the United States, Tehran on 24 April 1980. Its failure, and the humiliating public debacle that ensued, damaged US prestige worldwide. Carter and many experts concluded that the failure to free the hostages played a major role in Ronald Reagan's victory in the 1980 US presidential election.

The operation encountered many obstacles and was eventually aborted. Eight helicopters were sent to the first staging area, Desert One, but only five arrived in operational condition. One encountered hydraulic problems, another got caught in a cloud of very fine sand, and the last one showed signs of a cracked rotor blade. During planning it was decided that the mission would be aborted if fewer than six helicopters remained, despite only four being absolutely necessary. In a move that is still discussed in military circles, the commanders asked President Carter for permission to abort and Carter granted the request.

 

 

1990 STS-31: The Hubble Space Telescope is launched from the Space Shuttle Discovery.

 

 

 

 

 

Price R399.00

 

 

1990 – Gruinard Island, Scotland, is officially declared free of the anthrax disease after 48 years of quarantine.

 

 

1993 – An IRA bomb devastates the Bishopsgate area of London.

 

 

The Bishopsgate bombing occurred on Saturday 24 April 1993, when the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) detonated an ANFO truck bomb on Bishopsgate, a major thoroughfare in London's financial district, the City of London. A news photographer was killed in the explosion and 44 people were injured; the damage cost £350 million to repair. As a result of the bombing, which occurred just over a year after the bombing of the nearby Baltic Exchange, a "ring of steel" was implemented to protect the City, and many firms introduced disaster recovery plans in case of further attacks or similar disasters.

 

2005 Cardinal Joseph Ratzfinger is inaugurated as the 265th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church taking the name Pope Benedict XVI.

 

2005 – Snuppy becomes world's first cloned dog.

 

The Afghan Hound is a hound that is one of the oldest dog breeds in existence. Distinguished by its thick, fine, silky coat and its tail with a ring curl at the end, the breed acquired its unique features in the cold mountains of Afghanistan.

 

 

2013 – A building collapses near Dhaka, Bangladesh, killing 1,129 people and injuring 2,500 others.

 

 

On 24 April 2013, Rana Plaza, an eight-story commercial building, collapsed in Savar, a sub-district in the Greater Dhaka Area, the capital of Bangladesh. The search for the dead ended on 13 May with the death toll of 1,129. Approximately 2,515 injured people were rescued from the building alive.

It is considered to be the deadliest garment-factory accident in history, as well as the deadliest accidental structural failure in modern human history.

The building contained clothing factories, a bank, apartments, and several other shops. The shops and the bank on the lower floors immediately closed after cracks were discovered in the building.

Warnings to avoid using the building after cracks appeared the day before had been ignored. Garment workers were ordered to return the following day and the building collapsed during the morning rush-hour.

 

 

 

 

23th

 
215 BC A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Lake Trasimene.

 

 

 

 

599 – Maya king Uneh Chan of Calakmul attacks rival city-state Palenque in southern Mexico, defeating queen Yohl Ik'nal and sacking the city.

 

 

Scroll Serpent (Uneh Chan was a Maya ruler of the Kaan kingdom.He ruled from AD 579 to 611.He acceded on September 2.

 

Inscriptions at Palenque record two long-range attacks by Kaan during the reign of this powerful king in the years following the eclipse of Tikal's power and the ascendency of the Snake kingdom. In the dry season of AD 599 and then again 611 his forces crossed the Usumacinta River and struck Lakamha', the very center of Palenque.

Scroll Serpent maintained an existing relationship by overseeing an action of Yajaw Te' K'inich II of Caracol at some point before 583.

 

 

Maya civilization

There are no Scroll Serpent monuments at Calakmul today.

Scroll Serpent's celebration of the 9.8.0.0.0 k'atun ending is recorded on both Stela 8 and Stela 33. Stela 33, erected by Yuknoom the Great in 657, appears to combine the focus on Scroll Serpent with a statement of Yuknoom the Great's birth in 600, suggesting that he was a son of Scroll Serpent. If so, the three rulers who intervened between Scroll Serpent and Yuknoom the Great — Yuknoom Ti' Chan, Tajoom Uk'ab K'ahk' and Yuknoom Head — might also have been sons of Scroll Serpent.

That Scroll Serpent erected no monuments of his own at Calakmul is suggested by the retrospective references to his activities by Yuknoom Ch’een II and Yuknoom Took' K'awiil, given that there are more likely to be accounts of the activities of previous rulers when their own accounts are not in evidence. An absence of Scroll Serpent’s monuments at Calakmul is consistent with the hypothesis that the Kaan dynasty was located elsewhere at this time, perhaps at Dzibanche.

Scroll Serpent’s logistical achievement in attacking Lakamha’ was all the more impressive since it quite possibly originated even further away from Palenque than the eventual capital of the Kaan kingdom in Calakmul. During the reign of Scroll Serpent, Kaan may have been centered at Dzibanche.

 

Wife of Scroll Serpent was possibly Lady Scroll-in-hand.

 

1343 St. George's Night Uprising commences in the Duchy of Estonia.

 

 

 

St. George’s Night Uprising in 1343–1346 (Estonian: Jüriöö ülestõus, Estonian pronunciation: [jyriøø ylestɤus]) was an unsuccessful attempt by the indigenous Estonian population in the Duchy of Estonia, the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek, and the insular territories of the State of the Teutonic Order to rid themselves of the Danish and German rulers and landlords, who had conquered the country in the 13th century during the Livonian crusade, and to eradicate the non-indigenous Christian religion. After initial success the revolt was ended by the invasion of the Teutonic Order. In 1346 the Duchy of Estonia was sold for 19,000 Köln marks by the King of Denmark to the Teutonic Order. The shift of sovereignty from Denmark to the State of the Teutonic Order took place on November 1, 1346.

 

1348 – The founding of the Order of the Garter by King Edward III is announced on St. George's Day.

 

 

1661 – King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland is crowned in Westminster Abbey.

 

 

Charles II in the robes of the Order of the Garter,

 

1815 The Second Serbian Uprising: A second phase of the national revolution of the Serbs against the Ottoman Empire,

 erupts shortly after the annexation of the country to the Ottoman Empire.

 

The Second Serbian Uprising (1815-1817) was the second phase of the Serbian Revolution against the Ottoman Empire, which erupted shortly after the re-annexation of the country to the Ottoman Empire, in 1813. The occupation was enforced following the defeat of the First Serbian Uprising (1804-1813), during which Serbia existed as a de facto independent state for over a decade. The second revolution ultimately resulted in Serbian semi-independence from the Ottoman Empire. The Principality of Serbia was established, governed by its own parliament, constitution and royal dynasty. De jure independence followed during the second half of the 19th century.

 

1910 American President Theodore Roosevelt makes his "The Man in the Arena" speech.

 

It is not the critic who counts; not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles, or where the doer of deeds could have done them better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs, who comes short again and again, because there is no effort without error and shortcoming; but who does actually strive to do the deeds; who knows great enthusiasms, the great devotions; who spends himself in a worthy cause; who at the best knows in the end the triumph of high achievement, and who at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who neither know victory nor defeat.

Someone who is heavily involved in a situation that requires courage, skill, or tenacity (as opposed to someone sitting on the sidelines and watching), is sometimes referred to as "the man in the arena."

 

1918 World War I: The British Royal Navy makes a raid in an attempt to neutralise the Belgian port of Bruges-Zeebrugge.

 

 

The Zeebrugge Raid, which took place on 23 April 1918, was an attempt by the British Royal Navy to block the Belgian port of Bruges-Zeebrugge. The British intended to sink older British ships in the canal entrance, to prevent German vessels from leaving port. The port was used by the Imperial German Navy as a base for U-boats and light shipping, which were a threat to Allied shipping, especially in the English Channel. Several attempts to close the Flanders ports by bombardment failed and Operation Hush a plan to advance up the coast in 1917 proved abortive. As shipping losses by U-boats increased, finding a way to close the ports became urgent and a raid was considered.

 

1920 – The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM) is founded in Ankara, Turkey. It denounces the government of Sultan Mehmed VI and announces the preparation of a temporary constitution.

 

 

1941 World War II: The Greek government and King George II evacuate Athens before the invading Wehrmacht.

 

 

1942 – World War II: Baedeker Blitz German bombers hit Exeter, Bath and York in retaliation for the British raid on Lübeck.

 

Lübeck was bombed on the night of 28/29 March 1942. The Lübeck raid along with the raid on Rostock caused "outrage in the German leadership… and inspired the retaliatory 'Baedeker' raids". In retaliation for the Lübeck raid the Germans bombed Exeter on 23 April 1942, the first of the 'Baedeker' raids.

 

 

The Baedeker raids were conducted by the German Luftwaffe's Luftflotte 3 in two periods between April and June 1942. They targeted militarily unimportant but picturesque cities in England. The cities were reputedly selected from the German Baedeker Tourist Guide to Britain, meeting the criterion of having been awarded three stars (for their historical significance), hence the English name for the raids. Baron Gustav Braun von Stumm, a German propagandist is reported to have said on 24 April 1942 following the first attack, "We shall go out and bomb every building in Britain marked with three stars in the Baedeker Guide."

The cities attacked were:

938 civilians were killed in these raids.

Across all the raids on these five cities a total of 1,637 civilians were killed and 1,760 injured, and over 50,000 houses were destroyed. Some noted buildings were destroyed or damaged, including York's Guildhall and the Bath Assembly Rooms, but on the whole most escaped — the cathedrals of Norwich, Exeter and Canterbury included. The German bombers suffered heavy losses for minimal damage inflicted, and the Axis' need for reinforcements in North Africa and Russian Front meant further operations were restricted to hit-and-run raids on coastal towns by a few Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighter-bombers. Deal, Kent was one of these towns and was hit hard, with over 30 civilian dead most of whom are buried in the Hamilton Road Cemetery, Deal, Kent.

 

Baedeker Blitz

 

On 27 April Winston Churchill told the War Cabinet that the government should do all it could to 'ensure that disproportionate publicity was not given to these raids' and 'avoid giving the impression that the Germans were making full reprisal' for British raids.

Several other raids are sometimes included under the Baedeker title, although only a few aircraft were involved in each, and damage was not extensive. These raids were all on East Anglian locations. Among the firefighters assigned to the scene in Bath was Harry Patch, who in the 2000s became the last surviving British veteran from the First World War.

 

1945 – World War II: Adolf Hitler's designated successor Hermann Göring sends him a telegram asking permission to take leadership of the Third Reich, which causes Hitler to replace him with Joseph Goebbels and Karl Dönitz.

 

 

The telegram was intercepted by Bormann, who convinced Hitler that Göring was a traitor and that the telegram was a demand to resign or be overthrown. Hitler sent a reply to Göring—prepared with Bormann's help—informing him that, unless he resigned immediately, he would be executed for high treason. Soon afterward, Hitler sacked Göring from all of his offices and ordered Göring, his staff and Lammers placed under house arrest at Obersalzberg.  Bormann made an announcement over the radio that Göring had resigned for health reasons.

 

By 26 April the complex at Obersalzberg was under attack by the Allies, so Göring was moved to his castle at Mauterndorf. In his last will and testament, Hitler expelled Göring from the party and formally rescinded the decree making him his successor. He then appointed Karl Dönitz, the Navy's commander-in-chief, as president of the Reich and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Hitler and his wife, Eva Braun, committed suicide on 30 April 1945, a few hours after a hastily-arranged wedding. Göring was freed on 5 May by a passing Luftwaffe unit, and he made his way to the American lines in hopes of surrendering to them rather than to the Russians. He was taken into custody near Radstadt on 6 May. This move likely saved Göring's life; Bormann had ordered him executed if Berlin had fallen.

 

 

1968 Vietnam War: Student protesters at Columbia University in New York City take over administration buildings and shut down the university.

 

 

The Columbia University protests of 1968 were among the many student demonstrations that occurred around the world in that year. The Columbia protests erupted over the spring of that year after students discovered links between the university and the institutional apparatus supporting the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War, as well as their concern over an allegedly segregatory gymnasium to be constructed in the nearby Morningside Park. The protests resulted in the student occupation of many university buildings and their eventual violent removal by the New York City Police Department.

 

1971 Bangladesh Liberation War: The Pakistan Army and Razakars massacre approximately 3,000 Hindu emigrants in the Jathibhanga area of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).

 

Jathibhanga massacre (Bengali: জাঠিভাঙ্গা হত্যাকান্ড) was a massacre of the emigrating Bengali population in the Jathibhanga area of Shukhanpukuri Union under Thakurgaon sub-division of greater Dinajpur district on 23 April 1971 by the Pakistani Army in collaboration with the Razakars.  The collaborators included members from Jamaat-e-Islami, Muslim League and Pakistan Democratic Party. The victims of the massacre were all Hindus. It is estimated that more than 3,000 Bengali Hindus were killed in the massacre within a few hours.

Aid for war widows, finally

 

1993 Eritreans vote overwhelmingly for independence from Ethiopia in a United Nations-monitored referendum.

 

 

Eritrea (/ˌɛrɨˈtr.ə/ or /ˌɛrɨˈtrə/; Ge'ez: Tigrinya: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā ; Arabic: إرتريا Iritriyā), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa. Eritrea is the Italian form of the Greek name Ἐρυθραία (Erythraía ), meaning "red [land]". With its capital at Asmara, it is bordered by Sudan to the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the east. The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea, across from Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The nation has a total area of approximately 117,600 km2 (45,406 sq mi), and includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands.

 

Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country, with nine recognized ethnic groups. It has a population of around six million inhabitants. Most residents speak Afro-Asiatic languages, either of the Semitic or Cushitic branches. Among these communities, the Tigrinya make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre constituting around 30% of inhabitants. In addition, there are a number of Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities. Most people in the territory adhere to Christianity or Islam.

 

The Kingdom of Aksum, covering much of modern-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, rose somewhere around the first or second centuries  and adopted Christianity by the time Islam had conquered Egypt. In medieval times much of Eritrea fell under the Medri Bahri Kingdom, with a smaller region being part of the Hamasien Republic. The creation of modern day Eritrea is a result of the incorporation of independent Kingdoms and various vassal states of the Ethiopian empire and the Ottoman Empire, eventually resulting in the formation of Italian Eritrea. In 1947 Eritrea gained its independence from European powers and became part of a federation with Ethiopia, the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Subsequent annexation by Ethiopia led to the Eritrean War of Independence, ending with Eritrean independence in 1991.

Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations and IGAD, and is an observer in the Arab League.

 

 

1993 – Sri Lankan politician Lalith Athulathmudali is assassinated while addressing a gathering, approximately four weeks ahead of the Provincial Council elections for the Western Province.

 

 

 

 

22nd

 
 

1519 – Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés establishes a settlement at Veracruz, Mexico.

 

 

 

When Hernán Cortés arrived in Mexico in 1519, he founded a city here, which he named Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz, referring to the area’s gold and dedicated to the "True Cross", because he landed on the Christian holy day of Good Friday, the day of the Crucifixion. It was the second Spanish settlement on the mainland of the Americas but the first to receive a coat-of-arms. During the colonial period, this city had the largest mercantile class and was at times wealthier than the capital of Mexico City. Its wealth attracted the raids of pirates, against which fortifications such as Fort San Juan de Ulúa were built. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Veracruz was invaded on different occasions by France and the United States; the last invasion occurred in 1914

 

 

1529 Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal along a line 297.5 leagues or 17° east of the Moluccas.

 

 

The Treaty of Zaragoza, also referred to as the Capitulation of Zaragoza, was a peace treaty between Spain and Portugal signed on 22 April 1529 by King John III and the Emperor Charles V in the Spanish city of Zaragoza. The treaty defined the areas of Spanish and Portuguese influence in Asia to resolve the "Moluccas issue", when both kingdoms claimed the Moluccas islands for themselves, considering it within their exploration area established by the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. The conflict sprang in 1520, when the expeditions of both kingdoms reached the Pacific Ocean, since there was not a set limit to the east.

 

 

1622 – The Capture of Ormuz by the East India Company ends Portuguese control of Hormuz Island.

 

 

In the 1622 Capture of Ormuz, an Anglo-Persian force combined to take over the Portuguese garrison at Hormuz Island, thus opening up Persian trade with England in the Persian Gulf. Before the capture of Ormuz, the Portuguese had held the Castle of Ormuz for more than a century, since 1507 when Afonso de Albuquerque established it in the Capture of Ormuz, giving them full control of the trade between India and Europe through the Persian Gulf. "The capture of Ormuz by an Anglo-Persian force in 1622 entirely changed the balance of power and trade".

 

 

1809 – The second day of the Battle of Eckmühl: the Austrian army is defeated by the First French Empire army led by Napoleon I of France and driven over the Danube in Regensburg.

 

Regensburg (German pronunciation: [ˈʁeɡənsbʊɐ̯k]; historically also Ratisbon, from Celtic Ratisbona, Latin: Castra Regina) (fr. Ratisbonne) is a city in Bavaria, Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at one of the northernmost points of the Danube. To the east lies the Bavarian Forest. Regensburg is the capital of the Bavarian administrative region Upper Palatinate. The large medieval centre of the city (including outside of the city's Stadt-Am-Hof) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

 

 

1836 Texas Revolution: A day after the Battle of San Jacinto, forces under Texas General Sam Houston identify Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna among the captives of the battle when one of his fellow captives mistakenly gives away his identity.

 

 

1864 – The U.S. Congress passes the Coinage Act of 1864 that mandates that the inscription In God We Trust be placed on all coins minted as United States currency.

 

 

1889 – At high noon, thousands rush to claim land in the Land Run of 1889. Within hours the cities of Oklahoma City and Guthrie are formed with populations of at least 10,000.

 

 

1915 – The use of poison gas in World War I escalates when chlorine gas is released as a chemical weapon in the Second Battle of Ypres.

 

Chemical weapons in World War I were primarily used to demoralize, injure, and kill entrenched defenders, against whom the indiscriminate and generally slow-moving or static nature of gas clouds would be most effective. The types of weapons employed ranged from disabling chemicals, such as tear gas and the severe mustard gas, to lethal agents like phosgene and chlorine. This chemical warfare was a major component of the first global war and first total war of the 20th century. The killing capacity of gas, however, was limited – only four percent of combat deaths were caused by gas. Gas was unlike most other weapons of the period because it was possible to develop effective countermeasures, such as gas masks. In the later stages of the war, as the use of gas increased, its overall effectiveness diminished. The widespread use of these agents of chemical warfare, and wartime advances in the composition of high explosives, gave rise to an occasionally expressed view of World War I as "the chemists' war".

The use of poison gas performed by all major belligerents throughout World War I constituted war crimes as its use violated the 1899 Hague Declaration Concerning Asphyxiating Gases and the 1907 Hague Convention on Land Warfare, which prohibited the use of "poison or poisoned weapons" in warfare.

 

 

 

British emplacement after German gas attack (probably phosgene).

 

 

British troops blinded by tear gas during the Battle of Estaires, 1918.

 

1944 World War II: Operation Persecution is initiated – Allied forces land in the Hollandia (currently known as Jayapura) area of New Guinea.

 

 

1945 – World War II: Prisoners at the Jasenovac concentration camp revolt. Five hundred twenty are killed and 80 escape.

 

Jasenovac concentration camp (Serbo-Croatian: Logor Jasenovac and Cyrillic: Логор Јасеновац; Yiddish: יאסענאוואץ, sometimes spelled "Yasenovatz") was an extermination camp established in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II. The camp was established by the governing Ustaše regime and not operated by Nazi Germany, and was one of the largest concentration camps in Europe.

 

From August 1941 it existed in marshland at the confluence of the Sava and Una rivers near the village of Jasenovac. It was dismantled in April 1945. It was "notorious for its barbaric practices and the large number of victims".In Jasenovac, the majority of victims were ethnic Serbs, whom the Ustaše wanted to remove from the NDH, along with the Jews, anti-fascist or dissident Croatians, and gypsies. Jasenovac was a complex of five subcamps spread over 210 km2 (81 sq mi) on both banks of the Sava and Una rivers. The largest camp was the "Brickworks" camp at Jasenovac, about 100 km (62 mi) southeast of Zagreb. The overall complex included the Stara Gradiška sub-camp, the killing grounds across the Sava river at Donja Gradina, five work farms, and the Uštica Roma camp.

 

During and since World War II, there has been much debate and controversy regarding the number of victims killed at the Jasenovac concentration camp complex in its more than 3½ years of operation.

Gradually, in the 15 years after the war ended, a figure of 700,000 began to reflect conventional wisdom, although estimates range between 350,000 and 800,000. The authorities of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia conducted a population survey in 1964 that showed a far lower figure, but kept it a secret; when Vladimir Žerjavić published such lower figures in the 1980s, he was criticized by Antun Miletić among others, but his research has since been considered trustworthy by authorities on World War II Yugoslav history such as Jozo Tomasevich.

 

 

 

 

1945 – World War II: Führerbunker: After learning that Soviet forces have taken Eberswalde without a fight, Adolf Hitler admits defeat in his underground bunker and states that suicide is his only recourse.

 

 

 

Hitler created a public image as a celibate man without a domestic life, dedicated entirely to his political mission and the nation. He met his mistress, Eva Braun, in 1929,and married her in April 1945. In September 1931, his half-niece, Geli Raubal, committed suicide with Hitler's gun in his Munich apartment. It was rumoured among contemporaries that Geli was in a romantic relationship with him, and her death was a source of deep, lasting pain. Paula Hitler, the last living member of the immediate family, died in 1960.

 

 

1948 1948 Arab-Israeli War: Haifa, a major port of Israel, is captured from Arab forces.

 

 

The Battle of Haifa, called by the Jewish forces Operation Bi'ur Hametz (Hebrew: מבצע ביעור חמץ‎, "Passover Cleaning") was a Haganah operation carried out on 21–22 April 1948. The objective of the operation was the capture of the Arab neighborhoods of Haifa and was a major event in the final stages of the civil war in Palestine, leading up to the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.

 

1951 Korean War: The Chinese People's Volunteer Army begin assaulting positions defended by the Royal Australian Regiment and the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry at the Battle of Kapyong.

 

 

1954 Red Scare: Witnesses begin testifying and live television coverage of the Army-McCarthy Hearings begins.

 

 

1970 – The first Earth Day is celebrated.

 

 

1972 Vietnam War: Increased American bombing in Vietnam prompts anti-war protests in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco.

 

 

2000 – In a pre-dawn raid, federal agents seize six-year-old Elián González from his relatives' home in Miami, Florida.

 

 

21st

 
753 BC Romulus founds Rome (traditional date).

 

 

 

Romulus /ˈrɒmjələs/ and Remus /ˈrməs/ are the twin brothers and central characters of Rome's foundation myth. Their mother is Rhea Silvia, daughter to Numitor, king of Alba Longa. Before their conception, Numitor's brother Amulius seizes power, kills Numitor's male heirs and forces Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin, sworn to chastity. Rhea Silvia conceives the twins by the god Mars, or by the demi-god Hercules; once the twins are born, Amulius has them abandoned to die in the river Tiber. They are saved by a series of miraculous interventions: the river carries them to safety, a she-wolf (in Latin, lupa) finds and suckles them, and a woodpecker feeds them. A shepherd and his wife find them and foster them to manhood, as simple shepherds. The twins, still ignorant of their true origins, prove to be natural leaders. Each acquires many followers. When they discover the truth of their birth, they kill Amulius and restore Numitor to his throne. Rather than wait to inherit Alba Longa, they choose to found a new city.

Romulus wants to found the new city on the Palatine Hill; Remus prefers the Aventine Hill. They agree to determine the site through augury but when each claims the results in his own favor, they quarrel and Remus is killed. Romulus founds the new city, names it Rome, after himself, and creates its first legions and senate. The new city grows rapidly, swelled by landless refugees; as most of these are male, and unmarried, Romulus arranges the abduction of women from the neighboring Sabines. The ensuing war ends with the joining of Sabines and Romans as one Roman people. Thanks to divine favour and Romulus' inspired leadership, Rome becomes a dominant force, but Romulus himself becomes increasingly autocratic, and disappears or dies in mysterious circumstances. In later forms of the myth, he ascends to heaven, and is identified with Quirinus, the divine personification of the Roman people.

 

 

Ruins of the Domus Augustana on Palatine Hill.

 

 

 

Part of the Imperial Palace complex on the Palatine Hill overlooking the Circus Maximus. Vatican Hill (Vaticano)

 

43 BC Battle of Mutina: Mark Antony is again defeated in battle by Aulus Hirtius, who is killed. Antony fails to capture Mutina and Decimus Brutus is murdered shortly after.

 

 

Mutina is essentially where Octavian turns from an inferior young man to an equal of Antony. After retreating over the Alps with the remains of his army, Antony soon recrossed the Alps having gathered an army of 17 legions and 10,000 cavalry (in addition to six legions left behind with Varius, according to Plutarch). However, soon after the battle, a truce was formed between fellow Caesarians Antony and Octavian at Bologna. A Commission of Three for the Ordering of the State was to be officially established for five years, known as the Second Triumvirate, with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Octavian and Mark Antony as the commissioners or Triumvirs. They would set aside their differences and turn on the Senators involved in Caesar's assassination while assuming a 3-way dictatorship. Eventually in the ensuing power struggles many years later, Octavian would defeat Antony and Cleopatra at Actium in 31 BC and usher in the Principate, but Mutina was the milestone where Octavian first established himself as a force to be reckoned with. Without this victory, Octavian might never have achieved the prestige necessary to be looked upon as Caesar's successor, and the stability of the Empire might never have been established in the lasting manner which Octavian had decided for it.

 

1506 – The three-day Lisbon Massacre comes to an end with the slaughter of over 1,900 suspected Jews by Portuguese Catholics.

 

 

The Lisbon Massacre, alternatively known as the Lisbon Pogrom or the 1506 Easter Slaughter was an incident in April, 1506, in Lisbon, Portugal in which a crowd of Catholics, as well as foreign sailors who were anchored in the Tagus, persecuted, tortured, killed, and burnt at the stake hundreds of people who were accused of being Jews and, thus, guilty of deicide and heresy. This incident took place thirty years before the establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal and nine years after the Jews were forced to convert to Roman Catholicism in 1497, during the reign of King Manuel I.

 

In the years that followed the banishment of the Jews from Castile and Aragon in 1492 by the Catholic Monarchs, about 93,000 Jews took refuge in neighbouring Portugal. King Manuel I was by far more tolerant toward the Jewish community but, under pressure from Spain, made their conversion to Roman Catholicism compulsory in 1497.

 

1934 – The "Surgeon's Photograph", the most famous photo allegedly showing the Loch Ness Monster, is published in the Daily Mail (in 1999, it is revealed to be a hoax).

 

 

 

1966 Rastafari movement: Haile Selassie of Ethiopia visits Jamaica, an event now celebrated as Grounation Day.

 

 

The Rastafari movement is an African-based spiritual ideology that arose in the 1930s in Jamaica. It is sometimes described as a religion but is considered by many adherents to be a "Way of Life". Its adherents worship Haile Selassie I, Emperor of Ethiopia (ruled 1930–1974), some as Jesus in his Second Advent, or as God the Father. Members of the Rastafari way of life are known as Rastas, or the Rastafari. The way of life is sometimes referred to as "Rastafarianism", but this term is considered derogatory and offensive by most Rastafari, who, being highly critical of "isms" (which they see as a typical part of "Babylon culture"), dislike being labelled as an "ism" themselves.

 

1987 – The Tamil Tigers are blamed for a car bomb that detonates in the Sri Lankan capital city of Colombo, killing 106 people.

 

 

1989 Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989: In Beijing, around 100,000 students gather in Tiananmen Square to commemorate Chinese reform leader Hu Yaobang.

 

 

1992 – The first discoveries of extrasolar planets are announced by astronomers Alexander Wolszczan and Dale Frail. They discovered two planets orbiting the pulsar PSR 1257+12.

 

 

 

 

 

2004 – Five suicide car bombers target police stations in and around Basra, killing 74 people and wounding 160.

 

 

 

20th

 

On the Web: http://thatjewdiedforyou.com

 

 
  1. 1303 – The Sapienza University of Rome is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII.

Pope Boniface VIII (Latin: Bonifatius VIII; c. 1235 – 11 October 1303), born Benedetto Caetani, or Gaetani, was Pope from 24 December 1294 to his death in 1303. He organized the first Roman Catholic "jubilee" year to take place in Rome and declared that both spiritual and temporal power were under the pope's jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Roman pontiff. Today, he is probably best remembered for his feuds with Dante, who placed him in the Eighth Circle of Hell in his Divine Comedy, among the simoniacs.

 

 

  1. 1453 – The last naval battle in Byzantine history occurs, as three Genoese galleys escorting a Byzantine transport fight their way through the huge Ottoman blockade fleet and into the Golden Horn.

 

 

The Golden Horn (Turkish: Haliç), or Altın Boynuz (literally, "Golden Horn"); is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey. It is a horn-shaped estuary (hence, the name) that joins Bosphorus Strait at the immediate point where said strait meets the Sea of Marmara, thus forming a narrow, isolated peninsula, the tip of which is "Old Istanbul" (ancient Byzantion and Constantinople), and the promontory of Sarayburnu, or Seraglio Point. The Golden Horn geographically separates the historic center of Istanbul from the rest of the city, and forms a natural, sheltered harbor that has historically protected Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman and other maritime trade ships for thousands of years.

While the reference to a "horn" is understood to refer to the inlet's general shape, the significance of the designation "golden" is more obscure, with historians believing it to refer to either the riches brought into the city through the bustling historic harbor located at the Golden Horn, or to romantic historic interpretations of the rich yellow light blazing upon the estuary's waters as the sun sets over the city. Its Greek and English names mean the same, while its Turkish name Haliç, simply means "estuary", and is derived from the Arabic word khaleej, meaning "gulf".

Throughout its storied past, the Golden Horn has witnessed many tumultuous historical incidents, and its dramatic vistas have been the subject of countless works of art.

 

 

  1. 1535 – The Sun dog phenomenon observed over Stockholm and depicted in the famous painting Vädersolstavlan.

 

 

While mostly known and often quoted for being the oldest colour depiction of the city of Stockholm, Vädersolstavlan (Swedish; "The Sundog Painting", literally "The Weather Sun Painting") is arguably also one of the oldest known depictions of a sun dog. For two hours in the morning of April 20, 1535, the skies over the city were filled with white circles and arcs crossing the sky, while additional suns appeared around the sun. The phenomenon quickly resulted in rumours of an omen of God's forthcoming revenge on King Gustav Vasa (1496–1560) for having introduced Protestantism during the 1520s and for being heavy-handed with his enemies allied with the Danish king.

 

  1. 1653 Oliver Cromwell dissolves the Rump Parliament.

 

 

 

"Rump" normally means the hind end of an animal; its use meaning "remnant" was first recorded in the above context. Since 1649, the term "rump parliament" has been used to refer to any parliament left over from the actual legitimate parliament.

 

  1. 1657 – Admiral Robert Blake destroys a Spanish silver fleet under heavy fire at the Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife.
  2. 1789 – President George Washington arrives in Philadelphia after his inauguration to elaborate welcome at Gray's Ferry just after noon first inauguration of George Washington

 

  1. The first inauguration of George Washington as the first president of the United States took place on April 30, 1789.

    The inauguration marked the commencement of the first four-year term of George Washington as president. John Adams had already taken office as vice president on April 21. Sworn in by Chancellor of New York Robert Livingston during this first presidential inauguration, Washington became the first president of the United States following the ratification of the Constitution.

     
  2. 1828 René Caillié becomes the first non-Muslim to enter Timbouctou.

 

 

Timbuktu looking west, René Caillié (1830)

 

 

Map showing the main trans-Saharan caravan routes circa 1400. Also shown are the Ghana Empire (until the 13th century) and 13th – 15th century Mali Empire. Note the western route running from Djenné via Timbuktu to Sijilmassa. Present day Niger in yellow.

  1. 1884 Pope Leo XIII publishes the encyclical Humanum Genus.

 

 

Humanum Genus is a papal encyclical promulgated on April 20, 1884, by Pope Leo XIII. Coming in the ascent of the industrial age and Marxism, it posited that the late 19th Century was a dangerous era for Christians, and condemned Freemasonry as well as a number of beliefs and practices allegedly associated with Freemasonry, including naturalism, popular sovereignty which does not recognize God, and the idea that the state should be "without God". Some of the encyclical's strictures remain in force today.

  1. 1939 Adolf Hitler's 50th birthday is celebrated as a national holiday in Nazi Germany.

 

 

Adolf Hitler (German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ] ( ); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP); National Socialist German Workers Party). He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany (as Führer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945. Hitler was at the centre of Nazi Germany, World War II in Europe, and the Holocaust.

 

 

  1. On April 18, 1939, the government of Nazi Germany declared April 20, the birthday of Adolf Hitler, a national holiday. Festivities took place in all municipalities throughout the country, as well as in the Free City of Danzig. Historian Ian Kershaw comments that the events organized in Berlin by the Nazi minister of propaganda Joseph Goebbels were

    ...an astonishing extravaganza of the Führer cult. The lavish outpourings of adulation and sycophancy surpassed those of any previous 'Führer's Birthday.'

    —Ian Kershaw, Hitler: 1936–1945: Nemesis.[

    Festivities began in the afternoon of the day before, when Hitler was driven at the head of a motorcade of fifty white limousines along Albert Speer's newly completed "East-West Axis", the planned central boulevard for "Germania", which was to be the new capital for the Nazi empire. Hitler had been anticipating a speech from the taciturn Speer and was amused when he evaded this by briefly announcing that the work should speak for itself. The next event was a torchlight procession of deputations from all over Germany, which Hitler reviewed from a balcony in the Reich Chancellery.Then, at midnight, Hitler's courtiers congratulated him and presented him with gifts, including

    ...statues, bronze casts, Meissen porcelain, oil-paintings (some valuable, including a Lenbach and even a Titian, but mostly the standard dreary exhibits found in the House of German Art in Munich), tapestries, rare coins, antique weapons, and a mass of other presents, many of them kitsch (like the cushions embroidered with Nazi emblems or 'Heil mein Führer') ... Hitler admired some, made fun of others, and ignored most.

    —Ian Kershaw, Hitler: 1936–1945: Nemesis
     
  2. 1945 – World War II: Führerbunker: Adolf Hitler makes his last trip to the surface to award Iron Crosses to boy soldiers of the Hitler Youth.

 

  1. 1945 – Twenty Jewish children used in medical experiments at Neuengamme are killed in the basement of the Bullenhuser Damm school.

 

 

 

The children being forced to show the location of the scar where the axillary lymph nodes were excised.

 


Clip depicts Jesus bearing the cross just as he is about to be sent to the gas chambers at Auschwitz.
http://thatjewdiedforyou.com/

 

  1. 1968 – English politician Enoch Powell makes his controversial Rivers of Blood speech.

 

 

Enoch Powell's "Rivers of Blood" speech, given to the General Meeting of the West Midlands Area Conservative Political Centre on 20 April 1968, was a speech criticising Commonwealth immigration, and anti-discrimination legislation that had been proposed in the United Kingdom. Powell (1912–1998) was the Conservative Member of Parliament for Wolverhampton South West. Though Powell referred to the speech as "the Birmingham speech", it is otherwise known as the "Rivers of Blood" speech, a title derived from its allusion to a line from Virgil's Aeneid. Although the phrase "rivers of blood" does not appear in the speech, the name alludes to the line, "As I look ahead, I am filled with foreboding; like the Roman, I seem to see 'the River Tiber foaming with much blood.'"

The speech caused a political storm, making Powell one of the most talked about, though divisive, politicians in the country, and leading to his controversial dismissal from the Shadow Cabinet by Conservative party leader Edward Heath  According to most accounts, the popularity of Powell's perspective on race may have played a decisive contributory factor in the Conservatives' surprise victory in the 1970 general election, and he became one of the most persistent rebels opposing the subsequent Heath government.

 

 

  1. 1985 – The ATF raids The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord compound in northern Arkansas.

The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord (initialized CSA) was a far right political organization dedicated to Christian Identity and survivalism that was active in the United States in the 1970s and 1980s. CSA developed from a Baptist congregation called the Zarephath-Horeb Community Church, founded in 1971 in the small community of Elijah in southern Missouri. Over time, Zarephath-Horeb evolved into an extremist paramilitary organization rechristened CSA, which the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) identified in 1985 as the second-most dangerous domestic terrorist organization at the time. CSA operated a large compound in northern Arkansas called the Farm. In April 1985, law enforcement officers investigating the group for weapons violations and terrorist acts carried out a siege against the compound. After a peaceful resolution, officers arrested and convicted CSA's top leaders, and the organization soon dissolved.

  1. 1999 Columbine High School massacre: Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold kill 13 people and injure 24 others before committing suicide at Columbine High School in Columbine, Colorado.

 

The Columbine High School massacre was a school shooting which occurred on April 20, 1999, at Columbine High School in Columbine, an unincorporated area of Jefferson County in the State of Colorado. In addition to shootings, the complex and highly planned attack involved a fire bomb to divert firefighters, propane tanks converted to bombs placed in the cafeteria, 99 explosive devices, and bombs rigged in cars. Two senior students, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, murdered a total of 12 students and one teacher. They injured 24 additional students, with three other people being injured while attempting to escape the school. The pair then committed suicide.

Although their motives remain unclear, the personal journals of the perpetrators document that they wished their actions to rival the Oklahoma City bombing. The attack has been referred to by USA Today as a "suicidal attack [which was] planned as a grand – if badly implemented – terrorist bombing. The Columbine High School massacre is the deadliest mass murder committed on an American high school campus. Highly influential, it is noted as one of the first and most serious of a series of high profile spree shootings which have since occurred.

 

 

  1. Harris walked over to the table across from the lower computer row, slapped the surface twice and knelt, saying "Peek-a-boo" to 17-year-old Cassie Bernall before shooting her once in the head, killing her instantly. Harris had been holding the shotgun with one hand at this point and the weapon hit his face in recoil, breaking his nose. Three students who witnessed Bernall's death, including one who had been hiding beneath the table with her, have testified that Bernall did not exchange words with Harris after his initial taunt.

 

  1. The Columbine memorial

 

  1. "Columbine: Whose Fault Is It?"

 

  1. 2007 Johnson Space Center shooting: William Phillips with a handgun barricades himself in NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas before killing a male hostage and himself.

 

 

The Johnson Space Center shooting was an incident of hostage taking that occurred on April 20, 2007 in Building 44, the Communication and Tracking Development Laboratory, at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas, United States. The gunman, William Phillips, an employee for Jacobs Engineering who worked at Building 44, shot and killed one person and took a hostage for over three hours before committing suicide. Police said Phillips was under review for poor job performance and he feared being dismissed

  1. 2010 – The Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explodes in the Gulf of Mexico, killing eleven workers and beginning an oil spill that would last six months.
  2. 2013 – A 6.6-magnitude earthquake strikes Lushan County, Ya'an, in China's Sichuan province, killing more than 150 people and injuring thousands.

 

 
2013 Lushan earthquake is located in Sichuan
2013 Lushan earthquake
Chengdu
Chengdu
Ya'an
Ya'an
 
Date April 20, 2013 (2013-04-20)
Magnitude Mw 7.0 (GA)
Ms 7.0 (CENC)
Mw 6.6 (
USGS)
Mw 6.6 (
EMSC)
Mj 6.9 (
JMA)
Depth < 13 km (8.1 mi)
Epicenter 30°17′02″N 102°57′22″E / 30.28389°N 102.95611°E / 30.28389; 102.95611Coordinates: 30°17′02″N 102°57′22″E / 30.28389°N 102.95611°E / 30.28389; 102.95611[3]
Lushan County, Sichuan
Countries or regions  People's Republic of China (Sichuan, Chongqing, Shaanxi)
Aftershocks 1,815
Casualties 193 dead
23 missing
15,554 injured

 

 

The Lushan earthquake or Ya'an earthquake (Tibetan: Yak-ngai Sayom གཡག་རྔ་ཡི་ས་ཡོམ་) occurred at 08:02 Beijing Time (00:02 UTC) on April 20, 2013. The epicenter was located in Lushan County, Ya'an, Sichuan, about 116 km (72 mi) from Chengdu along the Longmenshan Fault in the same province heavily impacted by the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The magnitude of the earthquake was placed at Ms 7.0 by China Earthquake Data Center, Ms 7.0 by Russian Academy of Sciences, Mw 7.0 by Geoscience Australia, Mw 6.6 by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), Mw 6.6 by the European Alert System (EMSC) and Mj 6.9 by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). 1,815 aftershocks have been recorded as of 00:00 (UTC+8h) April 22.

 

 

19 th

 

 

65 – The freedman Milichus betrayed Piso's plot to kill the Emperor Nero and all the conspirators are arrested.

 

 

The conspiracy of Gaius Calpurnius Pis o in AD 65 was a major turning point in the reign of the Roman emperor Nero (54–68). The plot reflected the growing discontent among the ruling class of the Roman state with Nero's increasingly despotic leadership, and as a result is a significant event on the road towards his eventual suicide and the chaos of the Year of Four Emperors which followed.

 

 

531 Battle of Callinicum: A Byzantine army under Belisarius is defeated by the Persian at Ar-Raqqah (northern Syria).

 

The Battle of Callinicum took place on Easter Saturday, 19 April 531, between the armies of the Eastern Roman Empire under Belisarius and the Sassanid Persians under Azarethes. After a defeat at the Battle of Dara, the Sassanids moved to invade Syria in an attempt to turn the tide of the war. Belisarius' rapid response foiled the plan, and his troops pushed the Persians out of Syria through skillful maneuvering before forcing a battle.

 

 

In April 531, a Persian force under Azarethes, numbering about 15,000 cavalry, with an additional group of 5,000 Lakhmid Arabs, crossed the frontier at Circesium on the Euphrates and marched north. As they neared Callinicum, Belisarius, who commanded the local Byzantine troops, set out to follow them as they advanced westwards. Belisarius' forces consisted of about 5,000 men and another 3,000 Ghassanid Arab allies, for the remainder of his army had been left to secure Dara. The Byzantines finally blocked the Persian advance at Chalcis, where reinforcements under Hermogenes also arrived, bringing the Byzantine force to some 20,000 men. The Persians were forced to withdraw, and the Byzantines followed them east.

Initially, Belisarius only wanted to drive off the Persians, without a risky battle. The Byzantine troops, however, were restless, and clamored for battle. After failing to convince his men, and realizing they would mutiny unless he agreed, Belisarius prepared his force for battle.

The two armies met outside Callinicum on 19 April 531. Both groups formed up differently, Belisarius again choosing an "odd" formation that confused his opposing general. In this case he anchored his left flank on the bank of the river with infantry, put the Ghassanid Arab allies on the right flank, and placed several ranks of heavy cavalry, the cataphracts, in the center of the front line. In more standard formation the Persians split their forces into two roughly equal groups, with infantry in front of cavalry.

For much of the day, the battle was a stalemate, with the Persians and Byzantines trading arrows and cavalry charges. After "two thirds of the day" had elapsed a squadron of the elite Persian cavalry broke through the Roman right flank, composed of Belisarius' Ghassanid allies, with surprising force such that the Ghassanids were accused of treachery after they fled. With his right flank gone, Belisarius was forced to retreat in an effort to re-form his line, but the retreat was followed and soon the Romans found themselves pressed against the river.

 

 

The Empire at its greatest extent in 555 AD under
Justinian the Great

 

1012 Martyrdom of Ælfheah in Greenwich, London.

 

 

Ælfheah (Old English: Ælfhēah, "elf-high"; 954 – 19 April 1012), officially remembered by the name Alphege within some churches, and also called Elphege, Alfege, or Godwine, was an Anglo-Saxon Bishop of Winchester, later Archbishop of Canterbury. He became an anchorite before being elected abbot of Bath Abbey. His perceived piety and sanctity led to his promotion to the episcopate, and eventually, to his becoming archbishop. Ælfheah furthered the cult of Dunstan and also encouraged learning. He was captured by Viking raiders in 1011 and killed by them the following year after refusing to allow himself to be ransomed. Ælfheah was canonised as a saint in 1078. Thomas Becket, a later Archbishop of Canterbury, prayed to him just before his own murder in Canterbury Cathedral.

 

 

Dunstan (909 – 19 May 988) was an Abbot of Glastonbury Abbey, a Bishop of Worcester, a Bishop of London, and an Archbishop of Canterbury, later canonised as a saint. His work restored monastic life in England and reformed the English Church. His 11th-century biographer, Osbern, himself an artist and scribe, states that Dunstan was skilled in "making a picture and forming letters", as were other clergy of his age who reached senior rank.

Dunstan served as an important minister of state to several English kings. He was the most popular saint in England for nearly two centuries, having gained fame for the many stories of his greatness, not least among which were those concerning his famed cunning in defeating the Devil.

 

Lucifer (Le génie du mal) by Guillaume Geefs (Cathedral of St. Paul, Liège, Belgium)

 

1529 – Beginning of the Protestant Reformation: The Second Diet of Speyer bans Lutheranism; a group of rulers (German: Fürst) and independent cities (German: Reichsstadt) protests the reinstatement of the Edict of Worms.

 

 

The Diet of Speyer was convened in March 1529, for action against the Turks, whose armies were pressing forward in Hungary, and would besiege Vienna later in the year, and against the further progress of Protestantism.

The Diet opened on 15 March. The Catholic dignitaries appeared in full force, as did various princes and representatives of imperial cities who were leaning towards Luther and Zwingli's reforms. Ascendant Roman Catholic forces, particularly given Charles V's recent successes against the French in Italy, aimed to reverse the policy of religious tolerance adopted in 1526.

The meeting was not attended by Charles. He sent instructions to his regent, Ferdinand, to pursue a conciliatory line, but his advice did not reach his brother in time. Instead, Ferdinand read out his own far less conciliatory suggestions in Charles's name at the start of the Diet. Ferdinand condemned the way many princes had interpreted the recess issued at Speyer in 1526. He specifically denied them the right to choose which religious reforms would take effect in their states, and ordered that Catholicism be followed in all states of the Holy Roman Empire.

The Protestants felt that "Christ was again in the hands of Caiaphas and Pilate." The resultant recess of the Diet neutralized the recess of the preceding Diet of 1526; it virtually condemned (without, however, annulling) the innovations made; and it forbade, on pain of the imperial ban, any further reformation until the meeting of the council, which was now positively promised for the next year by the Emperor and the Pope. The Edict of Worms was therefore to be enforced after all, without waiting for a General Council. The Zwinglians and Anabaptists were excluded even from toleration. The latter were to be punished by death.

 

 

1539 – Charles V and Protestants signs Treaty of Frankfurt.

 

The Treaty of Frankfurt (also spelled Treaty of Frankfort), also known as the Truce of Frankfurt, was a formal agreement of peace between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and Protestants on 19 April 1539. The parties met at Frankfurt-on-the-Main, and the Lutherans were represented by Philip Melancthon. The treaty stated that the emperor would not take any violent actions against the Protestants, who had formed an alliance known as the Schmalkaldic League, for fifteen months starting 1 May during this time both parties could try and resolve the differences in their confessions. As a result of this peace, the Schmalkaldic League lost the protection of France

 

1677 – The French army captures the town of Cambrai held by Spanish troops.

 

 

As a Principality dependent on the Holy Roman Empire and close to the border of the Kingdom of France, submitted to Spain since 1543, Cambrai was besieged several times by the kings of France (in 1477 by Louis XI of France and, between 1581 and 1595, by Henry III of France and Henry IV of France).

Sully and Richelieu had established a national policy of "putting [France] in its first strength and its former splendor", and "put France in all places where was ancient Gaul", which included Artois, Hainaut and the provinces of the Netherlands. During the reign of Louis XIV, Cambrai was besieged unsuccessfully by the French in 1649 and again in 1657.

 

 

1770 – Marie Antoinette marries Louis XVI in a proxy wedding.

 

 

1839 – The Treaty of London establishes Belgium as a kingdom and guaranteeing its neutrality.

 

 

 

1903 – The Kishinev pogrom in Kishinev (Bessarabia) begins, forcing tens of thousands of Jews to later seek refuge in Palestine and the Western world.

 

 

 

The Kishinev pogrom took place in the capital of Bessarabia on April 6, 1903 after local newspapers published articles inciting the public to act against Jews; 47 or 49 Jews were killed, 92 severely wounded and 700 houses destroyed. The anti-Semitic newspaper Бессарабец (Bessarabetz, meaning "Bessarabian"), published by Pavel Krushevan, insinuated that a Russian boy was killed by local Jews. Another newspaper, Свет (Svet, "Light"), used the age-old blood libel against the Jews (alleging that the boy had been killed to use his blood in preparation of matzos).

 

 

Funeral of copies of the Sefer Torah which were damaged in the Chişinău pogrom

 

The Kishinev pogrom was an anti-Jewish riot that took place in Kishinev (Chişinău), then the capital of the Bessarabia province of the Russian Empire (now the capital of Moldova) on April 6–7, 1903.

 

 

Bessarabia was part of Greater Romania between 1918 and 1940

 

Bessarabia (Romanian: Basarabia; Russian: Бессарабия Bessarabiya, Ukrainian: Бессарабія Bessarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west. Nowadays the bulk of Bessarabia is part of Moldova, whereas the northernmost regions, as well as the southern regions bordering the Black Sea (Budjak), are part of the Ukraine.

 

In the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812, and the ensuing Peace of Bucharest, the eastern parts of the Principality of Moldavia, an Ottoman vassal, along with some areas formerly under direct Ottoman rule, were ceded to Imperial Russia. The newly acquired territories were organised as the Governorate of Bessarabia, adopting a name previously used for the southern plains between the Dniester and the Prut. Following the Crimean War, in 1856, the southern areas of Bessarabia were returned to Moldavian rule; nevertheless, Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878, when Romania, the result of Moldavia's union with Wallachia, was pressured into exchanging those territories for the Dobruja.

 

1942 World War II: In Poland, the Majdan-Tatarski ghetto is established, situated between the Lublin Ghetto and a Majdanek subcamp.

 

 

 

At its creation the ghetto imprisoned 34,000 Jews and an unknown number of Roma people. Virtually all of them were dead by the war's end. Most of them, about 30,000, were deported to the Belzec extermination camp (some of them through the Piaski ghetto) between March 17 and April 11, 1942; the German set quota called for 1,400 people per day to be sent to their deaths. The other 4,000 people were first moved to the Majdan Tatarski ghetto (a second ghetto established in the suburb of Lublin) and then either killed there or sent to the nearby KL Lublin/Majdanek concentration camp. The last of the Ghetto's former residents still in German captivity were executed at Majdanek and Trawniki camps in the Operation Harvest Festival (German: Aktion Erntefest) on November 3, 1943. At the time of the liquidation of the ghetto, the German propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels wrote in his diary, "The procedure is pretty barbaric, and not to be described here more definitely. Not much will remain of the Jews."

 

 

After liquidating the Lublin Ghetto, German authorities employed a forced labor work force of inmates of Majdanek to demolish and dismantle the area of the former ghetto, including in the nearby village of Wieniawa and the Podzamcze district, and in a symbolical event blew up the Maharam's Synagogue (built in the 17th century in honor of Meir Lublin). In that way they erased several centuries of Jewish culture and society in Lublin – the Jewish population in 1939 was about a third of the town's total population.

A few individuals managed to escape the liquidation of the Lublin Ghetto and made their way to the Warsaw Ghetto, bringing the news of the destruction with them. The eyewitness evidence convinced some Warsaw Jews that in fact, the Germans were intent on exterminating the whole of the Jewish population in Poland. However, others, including head of the Warsaw's Judenrat, Adam Czerniaków, at the time dismissed these reports of mass murders as "exaggerations". In total, only 230 Lublin Jews survived the German occupation.

 

1943 – World War II: In Poland, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins, after German troops enter the Warsaw ghetto to round up the remaining Jews.

 

 


Clip depicts Jesus bearing the cross just as he is about to be sent to the gas chambers at Auschwitz.
http://thatjewdiedforyou.com/

 

 

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Yiddish: אױפֿשטאַנד אין װאַרשעװער געטאָ; Polish: powstanie w getcie warszawskim; German: Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto) was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka extermination camp. The most significant portion of the rebellion took place from 19 April, and ended when the poorly armed and supplied resistance was crushed by the Germans, who officially finished their operation to liquidate the Ghetto on 16 May. It was the largest single revolt by Jews during World War II.[

 

In 1940, German occupational authorities began to concentrate Poland's population of over three million Jews into a number of extremely crowded ghettos located in large Polish cities. The largest of these, the Warsaw Ghetto, concentrated approximately 300,000–400,000 people into a densely packed, 3.3 km² central area of Warsaw. Thousands of Jews died due to rampant disease and starvation under SS-und-Polizeiführer Odilo Globocnik and SS-Standartenführer Ludwig Hahn, even before the mass deportations from the Ghetto to the Treblinka extermination camp began.

 

The SS conducted many of the deportations during the operation code-named Grossaktion Warschau, between 23 July and 21 September 1942. Just before the operation began, the German "Resettlement Commissioner" SS-Sturmbannführer Hermann Höfle called a meeting of the Ghetto Jewish Council Judenrat and informed its leader, Adam Czerniaków, that he would require 7,000 Jews a day[4] for the "resettlement to the East". Czerniaków committed suicide once he became aware of the true goal of the "resettlement" plan. Approximately 254,000–300,000 Ghetto residents met their deaths at Treblinka during the two-month-long operation. The Grossaktion was directed by SS-Oberführer Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg, the SS and police commander of the Warsaw area since 1941. He was relieved of duty by SS-und-Polizeiführer Jürgen Stroop, sent to Warsaw by Heinrich Himmler on 17 April 1943. Stroop took over from von Sammern-Frankenegg following the failure of the latter to pacify the Ghetto resistance.

 

When the deportations first began, members of the Jewish resistance movement met and decided not to fight the SS directives, believing that the Jews were being sent to labour camps and not to their deaths. By the end of 1942, Ghetto inhabitants learned that the deportations were part of an extermination process. Many of the remaining Jews decided to revolt. The first armed resistance in the ghetto occurred in January 1943. On the 19th of April 1943, Passover eve, the Germans entered the ghetto. The remaining Jews knew that the Germans would murder them and they decided to resist to the last man. While the uprising was underway, the Bermuda Conference was held from April 19–29, 1943 to discuss the current Jewish refugee problem. Discussions included the question of Jewish refugees who had been liberated by Allied forces and those who still remained within German-occupied Europe

 

1971 – Charles Manson is sentenced to death (later commuted life imprisonment) for conspiracy to commit the Tate/LaBianca murders.

 

 

1993 – The 51-day siege of the Branch Davidian building outside Waco, Texas, USA, ends when a fire breaks out. Eighty-one people die.

 

David Koresh (born Vernon Wayne Howell; August 17, 1959 – April 19, 1993) was the American leader of the Branch Davidians religious sect, believing himself to be its final prophet. Howell legally changed his name to David Koresh on May 15, 1990 (Koresh being the Persian name of Cyrus the Great ( کوروش, Kurosh ). A 1993 raid by the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, and the subsequent siege by the FBI ended with the burning of the Branch Davidian ranch outside of Waco, Texas, in McLennan County. Koresh, 54 other adults, and 28 children were found dead after the fire.

 

 

The Waco siege (also known as the Waco Massacre) was a siege of a compound belonging to the religious group Branch Davidians by American federal and Texas state law enforcement and military between February 28 and April 19, 1993. The Branch Davidians, a sect that separated in 1955 from the Seventh-day Adventist Church, was led by David Koresh and lived at Mount Carmel Center ranch in the community of Elk, Texas, nine miles (14 kilometers) east-northeast of Waco. The group was suspected of weapons violations and a search and arrest warrant was obtained by the U.S. federal agency Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF).

 

The incident began when the ATF attempted to raid the ranch. An intense gun battle erupted, resulting in the deaths of four agents and six Branch Davidians. Upon the ATF's failure to raid the compound, a siege was initiated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the standoff lasting 51 days. Eventually, the FBI launched an assault and initiated a tear gas attack in an attempt to force the Branch Davidians out. During the attack, a fire engulfed Mount Carmel Center and 76 men, women, and children, including David Koresh, died.

 

Much dispute remains as to the actual events of the siege. A particular controversy ensued over the origin of the fire; a government investigation concluded in 2000 that sect members themselves had started the fire. The events at Waco were cited as the primary motivation for the perpetrators of the Oklahoma City bombing that took place exactly two years later in 1995

1995 Oklahoma City bombing: The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, is bombed, killing 168.

 

 

 

The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist bomb attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995. It remained the most destructive act of terrorism committed in the United States until the September 11 attacks of 2001. The bombing killed 168 people and injured more than 680 others. The blast destroyed or damaged 324 buildings within a 16-block radius, destroyed or burned 86 cars, and shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings,causing at least an estimated $652 million worth of damage. Extensive rescue efforts were undertaken by local, state, federal, and worldwide agencies in the wake of the bombing, and substantial donations were received from across the country. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) activated eleven of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces, consisting of 665 rescue workers who assisted in rescue and recovery operations.

 

Within 90 minutes of the explosion, Timothy McVeigh was stopped by Oklahoma State Trooper Charlie Hanger for driving without a license plate and arrested for unlawfully carrying a weapon. Forensic evidence quickly linked McVeigh and Terry Nichols to the attack; Nichols was arrested, and within days both were charged. Michael and Lori Fortier were later identified as accomplices. McVeigh, an American militia movement sympathizer who was a Gulf War veteran, had detonated an explosive-filled Ryder rental truck parked in front of the building. McVeigh's co-conspirator, Terry Nichols, had assisted in the bomb preparation. Motivated by his hatred of the federal government and angered by what he perceived as its mishandling of the 1993 Waco siege and the Ruby Ridge incident in 1992, McVeigh timed his attack to coincide with the second anniversary of the deadly fire that ended the siege at Waco.

 

 

1997 – The Red River Flood of 1997 overwhelms the city of Grand Forks, North Dakota. Fire breaks out and spreads in downtown Grand Forks, but high water levels hamper efforts to reach the fire, leading to the destruction of 11 buildings.

 

 

There was some sense of imminent threat in Grand Forks, but the cities could not prepare for such an enormous flood. The National Weather Service (NWS) had a long-standing forecast for the river to crest at 49 feet (14.9 m), which was the river's highest level during the 1979 flood.[5] The cities had been able to get their dikes to this level, but the river continued to rise past it, to the astonishment of the NWS (which didn't upgrade its forecast until April 16, the day the river actually reached 49 feet).The dikes in the low-lying Lincoln Drive neighborhood of Grand Forks were the first to break, doing so early on April 18.[7] Other dikes over Grand Forks and East Grand Forks area failed that day and the next, flooding thousands of homes. During this time, Grand Forks mayor Pat Owens ordered the evacuation of over 50,000 people, which up to that time, had been the largest evacuation in the United States since the evacuation of residents in Atlanta, Georgia during the Civil War.

 

 

1999 – The German Bundestag returns to Berlin, the first German parliamentary body to meet there since the Reichstag was dissolved in 1933.

 

e.

 

2013 Boston Marathon bombings suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev is killed in a shootout with police. His brother Dzhokhar Tsarnaev is captured while hiding in a boat inside a backyard in Watertown, Massachusetts.

 

Dzhokhar Anzorovich "Jahar" Tsarnaev (Джоха́р Анзо́рович Царна́ев) (/ˌˈxɑr ˌtsɑrˈn.ɛf/, joh-KHAR tsahr-NY-ef; born July 22, 1993) and Tamerlan Anzorovich Tsarnaev (Тамерла́н Анзо́рович Царна́ев) (/ˌtæmərˈlɑːn/, ta-mər-LAHN; October 21, 1986 – April 19, 2013) are two Chechen brothers of perpetrators of the Boston Marathon bombings on April 15, 2013. The bombings killed three people and reportedly injured as many as 264 others

 

 
 
   
 

We've Been Told

 

 

 

Eric Clapton We've Been Told Jesus Is Coming Soon

Eric Patrick Clapton was born March 30th, 1945 in Surrey, England. After his father left his teenage mother, he was raised as his grandmother’s and her second husband’s son. Intrigued by the blues, he learned guitar in his teens. After being kicked out of the Kingston College of Art, he started building his name by performing with local bands.

 

   
 
 

 

 

1955 Israel obtains 4 of the 7 Dead Sea scrolls.

 

 

The Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of 972 texts discovered between 1946 and 1956 at Khirbet Qumran in the West Bank. They were found in caves about a mile inland from the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, from which they derive their name. The texts are of great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the earliest known surviving manuscripts of works later included in the Hebrew Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism.

The texts are written in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, and Nabataean, mostly on parchment but with some written on papyrus and bronze. The manuscripts have been dated to various ranges between 408 BCE and 318 CE. Bronze coins found on the site form a series beginning with John Hyrcanus (135–104 BCE) and continuing until the First Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE). The scrolls have traditionally been identified with the ancient Jewish sect called the Essenes, although some recent interpretations have challenged this association and argue that the scrolls were penned by priests in Jerusalem, Zadokites, or other unknown Jewish groups.

 

Due to the poor condition of some of the Scrolls, not all of them have been identified. Those that have been identified can be divided into three general groups: (1) some 40% of them are copies of texts from the Hebrew Bible, (2) approximately another 30% of them are texts from the Second Temple Period and which ultimately were not canonized in the Hebrew Bible, like the Book of Enoch, Jubilees, the Book of Tobit, the Wisdom of Sirach, Psalms 152–155, etc., and (3) the remaining roughly 30% of them are sectarian manuscripts of previously unknown documents that shed light on the rules and beliefs of a particular group or groups within greater Judaism, like the Community Rule, the War Scroll, the Pesher on Habakkuk and The Rule of the Blessing.

 

 

 

 

 

Qumran cave 4, where ninety percent of the scrolls were found

 

   
 

 

 
 

 

Price R 179.00

 

 

 

 

 

DVD

Price R499.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Personal details
Born Antioch, Syria, Roman Empire
Died c. 84
near Boeotia, Greece

 

Luke the Evangelist (Ancient Greek: Λουκᾶς, Loukás) is one of the Four Evangelists or authors of canonical Gospels of Jesus Christ. Luke was a native of the Hellenistic city of Antioch in Syria. The early church fathers ascribed to him authorship of both the Gospel according to Luke and the book of Acts of the Apostles, which originally formed a single literary work. Such authorship was later reaffirmed by prominent figures in early Christianity such as Jerome and Eusebius, although within scholarly circles, both secular and religious, discussions have been held due to the lack of evidence as to the real identity of the author of the works.

In the New Testament, Luke is mentioned briefly a few times, and referred to as a doctor in the Pauline epistle to the Colossians; thus he is thought to have been both a physician and a disciple of Paul. Considered by early Christians as a saint, he is believed to have died a martyr, although accounts of the events do vary.

He is venerated as Saint Luke the Evangelist within the Roman Catholic Church, and major denominations, as patron saint of artists, physicians, surgeons, students and butchers; his feast day is 18 October.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beginning of Wisdom

by

 Dr. Chuck Missler


“The fear of God is the beginning of wisdom.” Proverbs 9:10

But how do we balance the awesome majesty due to the Creator and Ruler of the universe with the gracious family intimacy that is now available to us through the completed work of Christ?

What does His Holiness demand of us, personally?

What are the hazards of failing to render the Almighty His due, while availing ourselves the riches committed to us of the precious promises in His Word?

How do we deal with these paramount issues facing us daily in practical challenges?

Chuck Missler grapples with these wildly misunderstood tensions with down-to-earth frankness and Biblically-based candor.
 

Price R 179

 

Price R179.00

 

 

Price R179.00

 

 

 

 

 

DVD Series - R 799.00
 
8 X DVD Discs
 
 
 

 

The Genesis Commentary includes the following studies:

  • Genesis Session 1- Introduction, The Book of Beginnings, Is the Bible Inerrant?
  • Genesis Session 2- Day One, Satan, The Mysteries of Light.
  • Genesis Session 3- 2nd Day, The Fabric of Space, Stretching the Heavens, Hyperdimensions, Boundaries of Reality.
  • Genesis Session 4- 3rd Day, Dry Land, Seas, Vegetation, The Water Molecule, The Cell Revealed.
  • Genesis Session 5- 4th Day, The Nebular Hypothesis, The Long Day of Joshua, Signs in the Heavens.
  • Genesis Session 6- 5th Day, The Mystery of Life.
  • Genesis Session 7- 6th Day, The Architecture of Man, The Nature of Time.
  • Genesis Session 8- 7th Day, The Sabbath.
  • Genesis Session 9- Chapter 3, The Seed Plot of the Entire Bible.
  • Genesis Session 10- Chapters 4 & 5, The 2nd Murder, The Geneology of Noah.
  • Genesis Session 11- Chapter 6, The Days of Noah.
  • Genesis Session 12- Chapters 7 & 8, The Flood.
  • Genesis Session 13- Chapters 9 & 10, The Post-Flood World.
  • Genesis Session 14- Chapter 11, The Tower of Bab-El.
  • Genesis Session 15- Chapters 12 - 15, The Call of Abraham.
  • Genesis Session 16- Chapters 16 - 20, The Walk of Abraham.
  • Genesis Session 17- Chapters 21, 22, 24, The Birth of Isaac, The Offering of Isaac, A Bride for Isaac.
  • Genesis Session 18- Chapters 23, 25-27, The Death of Sarah, Birth of Esau and Jacob, The Covenant Confirmed, The Stolen Blessing.
  • Genesis Session 19- Chapters 28-31, Jacob at Bethel, Leah and Rachel, Sons of Jacob, Jacob's Flight.
  • Genesis Session 20- Chapters 32-36, Jacob's Wrestling, Jacob Reconciles With Esau, Dinah Avenged, Jacob Returns to Bethel, The Generations of Esau.
  • Genesis Session 21- Chapters 37-39, Joseph's Dreams, Judah's Sin With Tamar (Review of Ruth), Joseph Imprisoned.
  • Genesis Session 22- Chapters 40-45, Joseph in Egypt.
  • Genesis Session 23- Chapters 46-48 & 50, The Family in Egypt.
  • Genesis Session 24- Chapter 49, The Tribes Prophetically.

 

   
 

 

 

   
 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Session 16 - II Chronicles Addendum:

 

 

  • The Ark of the Covenant. The Mercy Seat. The Gift from Ethiopia.

 

 

 

 

The Books of Chronicles - DVD
Chuck Missler


Price: R 799.00


Media Type: DVD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1948 1948 Arab-Israeli War: Haifa, a major port of Israel, is captured from Arab forces.

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRICE R499.00

 

 

 
  • Witness the rebirth of Israel as a nation

  • Watch modern-day prophecy fulfilled

Israel: A Nation is Born is a five-part video documentary series presented by former Israeli Foreign Minister Abba Eban. It chronicles his recollections of, and his part in, the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, the subsequent conflicts, including the 1967 Six Day War and the 1973 Yom Kippur War; the Egyptian--Israeli peace treaty and the events of the last decade.

Part one portrays the rise of Zionism and President Truman’s mounting pressure for a Jewish State. 

Part two includes the proclamation of Israeli Statehood on May 14, 1948 ad follows the invasion of the newborn State by its Arab neighbors, and the development of the State of Israel in the early 1950’s.

In part three Abba Eban explains how Israel ended its isolation, culminating in the combined Anglo-French-Israeli Sinai Campaign of 1956 and his personal involvement in bringing Adolf Eichmann to trial in Israel.

Part four starts with events surrounding the Six Day Ware of 1967. Eban leads diplomatic efforts at the United Nations resulting in resolution 242. 

Part five opens with the 1973 surprise attack by Egypt and Syria also known as the Yom Kippur War. Abba Eban describes his personal communications with King Hussein and other Arab leaders and outlines the beginning of a new peace process through the Madrid Conference and beyond.

5 DVD discs - 270 minutes

 

 

 

 

1 Calling me Home

 

 

Barry McGuire Callin Me Home Live Version

 

 Barry McGuire,

 

 

 

The Beautiful Side of Evil -

Johanna Michaelsen

 


1.06.47

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
World War II

 
Adolf Hitler salutes his troops as they march towards Poland 1 September
1939: Germany invades Poland
 

German forces attack Poland across all frontiers and its planes bomb Polish cities, including the capital, Warsaw - Britain and France prepare to declare war.
 


 
Neville Chamberlain in recording studio 3 September
1939: Britain and France declare war on Germany
Britain and France are at war with Germany following the invasion of Poland two days ago.
 

 
Winston Churchill (c), Air Minister Sir Kingsley Wood, (l), Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden (r) 10 May
1940: Churchill takes helm as Germans advance
German forces invade the Low Countries by air and land, while in London, Chamberlain is replaced by Churchill.
 

 
Troops board ship at Dunkirk 4 June
1940: Dunkirk rescue is over - Churchill defiant
As the last Allied soldier leaves Dunkirk, the British Prime Minister vows his forces "shall never surrender".
 

 
German soldiers parade through the Place de la Concorde 14 June
1940: German troops enter Paris
German troops march into Paris forcing French and allied troops to retreat.
 

 
World War II
10 Jul 1940: Luftwaffe launches Battle of Britain

 
07 Sep 1940: London blitzed by German bombers

 
15 Sep 1940: Victory for RAF in Battle of Britain

 
15 Nov 1940: Germans bomb Coventry to destruction

 
22 Jun 1941: Hitler invades the Soviet Union

 
14 Aug 1941: Secret meetings seal US-Britain alliance

 
07 Dec 1941: Japanese planes bomb Pearl Harbor

 
11 Dec 1941: Germany and Italy declare war on US

 
15 Feb 1942: Singapore forced to surrender

 
15 Apr 1942: Malta gets George Cross for bravery

 
07 Jun 1942: Japanese beaten in Battle of Midway

 
19 Aug 1942: Allies launch daring raid on Dieppe

 
04 Nov 1942: Rommel goes on the run at El Alamein

 
01 Dec 1942: Beveridge lays welfare foundations

 
17 Dec 1942: Britain condemns massacre of Jews

 
02 Feb 1943: Germans surrender at Stalingrad

 
16 May 1943: Germans crush Jewish uprising

 
17 May 1943: RAF raid smashes German dams

 
10 Jul 1943: Western Allies invade Sicily

 
25 Jul 1943: Italian dictator Mussolini quits

 
03 Sep 1943: Allied troops invade mainland Italy

 
08 Sep 1943: Italy's surrender announced

 
01 Dec 1943: Allies united after Tehran conference

 
27 Jan 1944: Leningrad siege ends after 900 days

 
18 May 1944: Monte Cassino falls to the Allies

 
05 Jun 1944: Celebrations as Rome is liberated

 
06 Jun 1944: D-Day marks start of Europe invasion

 
20 Jul 1944: Hitler survives assassination attempt

 
01 Aug 1944: Uprising to free Warsaw begins

 
25 Aug 1944: Paris is liberated as Germans surrender

 
17 Sep 1944: Airborne invasion of Holland begins

 
26 Sep 1944: Airborne troops retreat from Arnhem

 
03 Oct 1944: Poles surrender after Warsaw uprising

 
17 Dec 1944: Germany counter-attacks in Ardennes

 
27 Jan 1945: Auschwitz death camp liberated

 
07 Feb 1945: Black Sea talks plan defeat of Germany

 
14 Feb 1945: Thousands of bombs destroy Dresden

 
23 Feb 1945: US flag raised over Iwo Jima

 
15 Apr 1945: British troops liberate Bergen-Belsen

 
21 Apr 1945: Red Army enters outskirts of Berlin

 
27 Apr 1945: Russians and Americans link at Elbe

 
28 Apr 1945: Italian partisans kill Mussolini

 
01 May 1945: Germany announces Hitler is dead

 
07 May 1945: Germany signs unconditional surrender

 
08 May 1945: Rejoicing at end of war in Europe

 
21 Jun 1945: US troops take Okinawa

 
16 Jul 1945: Allied leaders gather at Potsdam

 
26 Jul 1945: Churchill loses general election

 
06 Aug 1945: US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima

 
09 Aug 1945: Atom bomb hits Nagasaki

 
15 Aug 1945: Allied nations celebra